Scientific Discovery Lead Time

Lead time of scientific discovery and its applications is much shorter in developed countries. This is because of their constant efforts of research and development for technology upgradation which was lacking in our country. Aluminum was obtained in pure form in 1825 and it was only in 1886 that large scale production process was finalized. Here lead time is 60 years. Hydrogenation of oil in the manufacture of Vanaspati originated in 1905 and by 1911 Procter and Gamble Company, USA placed hydrogenated cotton seed oil, similar to vanaspati on the market. Here the lead time is only 6 years. Lead time depends on the state of industrial development of the nation and priority given by the nation to that particular industry.

Role of Communication In Education

Q) State the role of communication in promoting education. In what ways can the education be imparted to all children in our country, poorest of poor and those in remote corners of the country through communication technology?

Q) Describe the role of Radio and TV in education?

It is through the process of communication, that the knowledge is transferred from one person to another or to a group. TV, Radio and internet have supplemented books and teachers in transmitting knowledge as well as skills.

1. Media and Educational Environment

Increasing use of media has created an educational environment in which both young and old can learn all the time. Media have extended knowledge to deprived, man, women and children. New opportunities of intellectual development have been created.

2. Media and Distance Education

Education is imparted through correspondence, audio-visual aids like TV, Radio, telephone besides personal contacts. As against a regular university which enrolls students of a similar age, has definite time schedule and is confined to a campus, an open university can cater to all kinds of students of various ages, living in different places. Eg: IGNOU

3. Broadcast of Lessons by AIR and Doordarshan

They have played a supplementary role to education at different levels by supporting classroom teaching. They have experimented with broadcasting lessons based on school syllabus. Doordarshan organised enriching programmes for college students with a view to supplement classroom teaching. These programmes have benefited general public as well. Satellite communication broadcasts UGC sponsored programmes all over the country. AIR broadcasts educational programmes from 74 stations. 8% of total time is devoted for this purpose.

TV is more effective as students can see the teacher, visuals and photos. Doordarshan started syllabus based lessons for school children in Delhi in 1961 with a view to improve the standard of teaching. In addition to providing learning and awareness, Radio and TV programmes create a desire to know more and improve the atmosphere in classrooms.

Future Plans

Action plan approved by parliament in 1986 has made several recommendations
  • Provide maximum educational programmes to reach out to school children, illiterate, tribals etc in all languages
  • Establish Radio stations in selected universities and colleges
  • Separate channel on television for educational programmes
  • Satellite system for education
  • Provide Radio and TV to elementary schools
  • Establish a national centre of educational information

Psychological Stability Of An Astronaut

Q) Discuss the factors that affect the psychological stability of an astronaut in space?

Human beings have to travel in most unnatural circumstances. If the astronaut is alone, loneliness and absence of sensations from outside will cause great mental stress. Man is a social animal, he has to receive sensations through eyes, ears, nose and skin to feel normal. The only visual he will be receiving is nothing but stars. It is very difficult to eat and drink in zero gravity. Even muscle movements is difficult. Due to vacuum, no outside sound will reach the spacecraft. It is difficult to wash, take bath or pass stools. He will be confused, lethargic and psychologically unstable. But practice can help a lot. Astronauts undergo vigorous training under zero gravity conditions. They now receive television pictures and can make phone calls. Groups of people are now sent instead of one manned missions.


Q) Some psychologists consider aggression as 'natural instinct' while others call it 'learned response'. State one argument in favour of each?

1. Instinct (Arguement)

Aggression is widespread. Our history of wars and violent acts taking place everyday in our society. Aggressive behaviour in animals is observable at every stage. We can even breed animals selectively for their aggressiveness. Eg: Boxers and animal fight display.

2. Learned Response (Arguement)

Suppose when you study, your neighbour plays loud music. You can do one of the 3 things
  1. You can get into an arguement with your neighbour
  2. You can beat him up
  3. You can move to a quieter place and talk to neighbour after you have cooled down 
The response chosen by you would be the one that has been the most successful in the past in a similar situation. Children imitate aggressive behaviour shown by elders. Children who were not exposed to such adult behaviour showed no increase in their aggressive attitude.

Role of Memory, Reasoning, Analysis And Synthesis In Learning Process

Memory, reasoning, analysis and synthesis are the 4 things that play main role in learning process. Memory is the process by which we hold information in our mind. Mere memory is not enough though. The information carried by memory has to be subjected to reasoning. Reasoning allows us to see the connection between different bits of information. For Eg: Rising of sun and daylight, gathering of clouds and the rain that may follow. Cause and effect of relationships are also explained in terms of reasoning. While we apply reasoning, we can make more sense of the information given to us and reach some conclusion. For eg: Various facts about murder, on the basis of reasoning and analysis may indicate exactly how it could have taken place or who did it. 

Analysis is a higher mental activity than memory or reasoning. Ultimately information from many areas of analysis is to be combined to make a whole picture. Things are first taken apart, reason and analyse, then synthesised to fully understand something. Synthesis is a higher level of mental activity than analysis. All these processes need not take separately or one after the other. In the mind, reasoning, analysis and synthesis is forwarded and backwarded until some conclusion emerges. This kind of learning is called cognitive learning. Every student experiences it and we all acquire knowledge in this manner.

Reward And Punishment In Learning

You have a puppy and you want to make it sit down. Puppy won't understand your language. But while giving the command, you can physically make him sit down and give him a biscuit, then on the experience being repeated many times, the puppy will learn to obey the command. The puppy will associate the sound of command to sit with the reward of biscuit. After training, the puppy will sit down as soon as he is given the command, even if there is no reward.

Punishments could also lead to the same result. We learn a lot of things by such processes. Eg: Baby cries for food, student solves a maths problem for teacher's appreciation. Punishment is used to reduce undesirable behavior. Eg: Traffic fine. The principle of reward and punishment is widely used in educational field. Good marks are rewarded and poor performance is punished. Same principle is used in society and in public organisations. Eg: Bonus for productivity and wage cut for low productivity in factories. 

We can also learn by conscious effort. While learning to ride bicycle we fall several times. But we pick up ourselves because of the desire to learn. Willingness to correct your mistakes is the surest way to learn quickly.

Ivan Pavlov's Experiment

Ivan Pavlov concluded that the salivation of dog on sight of food was a natural reflex action. But the other action was something new and is called learned reflex. During the bell experiment, the dog began to salivate as soon as the bell was rung even if food was not given. The dog associated the two stimuli, food and bell and one could be substituted for the other.


Hormones are released by special glands called endocrine glands. These glands have no opening or ducts but release their secretions directly into the blood stream. Each hormone acts on a certain organ in a specific way. Most of the effects are long term changes such as growth and sexual maturity. Some changes are quick like increase in heart rate and breathing. 

Hormones regulate the chemical reactions of the body and play a critical role in maintaining normal physical conditions. The production of proper amount of hormone is regulated by the brain. Hormones work in close co-ordination with our nervous system. Eg: When in danger, Adrenalin is created. Hormones provide a back up that maintains the response after the initial shock is over. Hormones also lead to abnormal behaviors in a person. This may be due to over secretion or under secretion. Hormones are also produced artificially.
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