Central Nervous System - Structural Components

1. Brain

Unlike other organs, brain can receive, handle and analyse information and issue necessary commands. Human brain consists of billions of neurons and is well protected through 3 tough membranes and floats in a special liquid which absorbs shocks. The whole organ is enclosed in a bony skull. 75% of body requirement of oxygen is used by brain. 4 inter-connected arteries carry blood to brain. These arteries are connected to capillaries which reach every part of the brain. If blood supply is interrupted, we become unconscious and permanent damage to brain cells may happen. Number of neurons in the brain cell does not increase after age 5. In fact neurons die every day. Even though neurons die, the connections among them increase. Learning involves establishment of new connections.

a) Forebrain

Longest part of the brain is cerebrum. It consists of two hemispheres joined by a band of nerve fibres. The right half control the actions of the left side of the body and vice versa. Outer surface of cerebrum is cerebral cortex known as grey matter. Left part of the brain deals with information logically and helps in mathematics and problem solving while right part is responsible for creative skills. There is a balance in each activity. Hypothalamus ensures that all body processes function well at optimum. Eg: It increases breathing, if there is high level of carbon dioxide in the blood. Sweat, thirst, hunger etc.

b) Midbrain

Receives input from all sensory organs and decides which part of it should reach the concerned regions of the brain. Mid brain plays a role in wakefulness and damage to it results in coma.

c) Hindbrain

Consists of cerebellum and brain stem. Cerebellum is also divided into 2 halves and lies underneath the cerebrum. It is concerned with co-ordination of muscle movements. It maintains the balance of the body. Brain stem connects it to the spinal cord. The lower part is called medulla. It helps regulate respiration, blood pressure, vomiting and other involuntary functions.

2. Spinal Cord

Spinal cord extends downwards from the brain stem through vertebrae to the bottom of the back. Its core is H-shaped in cross section and is composed of several kinds of neurons. The spinal cord is also covered by 3 membranes and contains fluid between the membranes. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. These nerves carry sensory signals up to the brain and motor signals from the brain to various parts of the body.

Infectious Diseases

Q) What are infectious diseases? Name any two diseases caused by bacteria and give their symptoms and prevention also?

Q) Communicable diseases?

1. Conjunctivitis

  • Redness in white of the eye
  • Increased amount of tears
  • Thick yellow discharge that crusts over the eyelashes, especially after sleep
  • Itchy eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • Increased sensitivity to light
  • Don't touch your eyes after coming from outside
  • Wash your hands with soap
  • Don't share towels and personal items
 2. Dysentry

  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhoea
  • Nausea with or without vomiting
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of strength
  • Watery stools
  • Drink only pure boiled water
  • Wash your hands with soap before eating food
  • Don't eat from unhygienic conditions 


Q) Discuss the various ways by which the human body battles against germs?

Q) How does vaccination protect us from diseases?

Skin and mucous membranes keep out the germs. Glands in the skin produce oily substances to provide a protective cover to the surface of the skin. Perspiration contains a chemical known as lyzozyme which destroys germs. It is also found in saliva, tears, nasal secretions and tissue fluids. Germs which enter our stomach are destroyed by strongly acidic stomach juices. Germs enter our body, reach our organs or survive in the stomach, take nourishment from the body and multiply. Then they start destroying our cells and secrete toxic substances and makes us sick. Soon the immune system, the body's defense mechanism kicks in. 

Defense is in the form of special cells called WBCs which circulate throughout the body along with blood. WBCs are of different types and fight germs in different ways. During infection, the no.of WBCs are doubled, tripled or quadrupled depending on the severity of infection. When germs attack, WBC migrate to the infected site and destroy the germs by engulfing them. These cells are called engulfing cells.

When the fight is over, another type of WBCs move to the site to remove dead germs and dead WBC. The pus thus contains a large no.of dead cells and germs. Another type of WBC produce antibodies which attack poisons to make them ineffective. These antibodies also tag the invader so that it is easily recognised by the engulfing cells. Another type of WBC works as killer cells and directly destroy the invader or the infected body cell. Some WBCs keep the memory of the invader as 'trained cells', which act quickly once the same kind of invader comes back.


Certain WBC develop memory of an invader and is trained to ward off future attacks. In this way, the body becomes "immune" to that infection and the process is called immunisation. Thus our body regularly develops natural immunity. Artificial immunisation is done through vaccination. A weak infection is artificially introduced into the body which triggers a defense mechanism and produces WBCs trained to combat that particular infection.

Protein Calorie Malnutrition

Mostly seen in poor families of developing countries. Millions of children dire annually due to this. Protein calorie malnutrition retard child's physical growth and weakens immunity. Sometimes children are even retarded mentally.

1. Kwashiorkar

First detected in 1935 in Africa. Sickness that strikes the first child, when he is soon displaced at his mother's breast by the second child. Babies lose weight during weaning. A child requires more than twice as much protein in relation to body weight as do adults. Breast milk provides the needed nutrition for 6 months, but after that the child requires supplementary food. Sometimes protein rich food is denied due to 
  • Financial issues, especially when new child is born
  • Ignorance, the best food is often given to man who provide for the family. Women and children eat whatever is left by the man
  • Due to great taste of breast milk, babies refuse to eat new food items
  • Vegetarian diet of Indians are not enough to provide proteins, unless consumed in large quantities
Child gradually loses appetite and develops weaning diarrhea caused by infection. Due to sensation in the gums, babies like to chew hard things and pick up whatever is lying on the floor. Thus they get infected. This misleads the mother, who further restricts the diet.

2. Marasmus

This is caused due to severe deficiency of both proteins and calories in the diet. Surveys show that more than 90% of children of poor families do not get required calories per day. Such children become victims of Marasmus. This causes retardation in growth, loss of muscles and fat.

How To Apply For Aadhaar Card Via Akshaya Centre

Applying for Aadhaar card through Akshaya is very easy. You need to take a photocopy of two photo ID proofs. It can be voters ID/ Driving license/ Passport/ Ration Card/ Pan Card etc. Not all akshaya centres have the facility to take photo, eye scan and finger prints. So make sure that the akshaya centre near you, has the facility for this. Moreover, the person responsible for taking photo and finger print scanning will not be available at the centre for all days. Each Akshaya centre will have a specific day to handle Aadhaar applications, so you must know whether the person will be available for taking photo and finger print scanning. In most Akshaya centres, the facility will be available on Friday and Saturday.

In order to confirm your date of birth, you either need to provide a copy of your SSLC Book or Passport. Otherwise your Aadhaar card will be issued as 'unverified', which you will have to verify at a later time. So a copy of your SSLC Book or Passport is a must to finish the application process in a single step. Akshaya centres charge Rs.10 for an Aadhaar application, the charges for photocopies will have to be paid separately. 

Once the application process is completed, they will handover a slip which contains all the details of your application. After 10 days you can check the status of your application online, by providing the details in the slip. Aadhaar status can be checked on this website https://resident.uidai.net.in/check-aadhaar-status


Vitamins are required in small amounts and their deficiency results in various diseases. Vitamins are not a source of energy, but they help in the release of energy from carbohydrates and fats. Each vitamin has a specific function and cannot be a substitute for another.

Vitamin A - Healthy eyes - Carrot

Vitamin B - Lack of appetite - Milk, cereals

Vitamin C - Health of mucus membrane - Citrus fruits

Vitamin D - Formation of bones - Sunshine vitamin

Vitamin B and C are water soluble, so they cannot be retained in the body and should be included in our daily meals. Excess of other vitamins can be stored in the body. Vitamin B and C are washed off when we cut or wash vegetables. Vitamin C gets destroyed while cooking at high temperatures. So it is better to eat lemon raw. Vitamin B2 in milk is destroyed by long exposure to sunlight.

Balanced Diet

A balanced diet is a combination of various foods which can fulfill energy needs of a person and can provide proteins, vitamins and minerals in proper quantity and proportion required to keep him healthy. Eg: Carbohydrates, fats, fruits, vegetables and sugar.


Q) What is biotechnology? Describe its main techniques. List any two applications each in the field of agriculture and medicine?

Conventional agricultural methods are not enough to meet the demands of growing population. Biotechnology deals with the use of biological systems or their products in large scale industrial processes. Today with the help of agricultural biotechnology, we can produce plants with high yields, resistance to diseases, improved nutritional quality and adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. 

The breeding process is an important aspect in biotechnology. With this, we can combine one or more favourable characters of the parents to the baby plant. There are two methods
  • Traditional method in which seeds and root stocks have been used as basic materials for raising plants
  • Tissue culture
Any plant cell can give rise to a complete plant. Any cells or group of cells are grown in a nutrient rich content medium under suitably controlled conditions in the laboratory. Tissue culture has already been employed to improve wheat and rice varieties. Genetic engineering is another method. It involves changing the genetic material of a particular plant, by substitution or addition of new genetic material from some other plants. Eg: Scientists are trying to develop nitrogen fixing quality in commercial crops.

With the help of biotechnology, we can get plant and fruits of desirable height, shape and flavour. Biotechnology has huge scope in improving animal breeds as well. The embryo-transfer technology offers great scope to produce superior breeds in short time. 

How To Calculate IGNOU Marks Percentage - Solved

Calculation of IGNOU marks percentage has been a topic of confusion. IGNOU gives 70% weightage for theory marks and 30% for assignment marks. What this means is that, even if you don't manage to score good marks in theory exams, you can make up for it by writing assignments in a proper manner. If you score almost 90 marks in assignments, it will help you mask your poor performance in theories to a certain extent, because assignment marks have 30% weightage while calculating the total percentage.

IGNOU Marks Percentage Calculation

Lets us take the below grade card as a sample

To find the percentage for FEG1, first find 30% of assignment marks, which is 30% of 54 in this case. Then find 70% of theory marks, which is 70% of 52 in this case. Then simply add them.

FEG1 % = 30% of 54 + 70% of 52 = 16.2 + 36.4 = 52.6 %

The person has scored a total of 52.6% for FEG1 paper. Similarly calculate the percentage for all other subjects.

FEG1 = 52.6%
FEG2 = 56.2%
FHS1 = 55.4%
FST1 = 49.5%
TS1   = 57.5%
TS2   = 57.2%
TS4   = 56.5%
TS5   = 54.6%

Total Percentage = Add all percentages for each paper / No.of papers
                            = (52.6+56.2+55.4+49.5+57.5+57.2+56.5+54.6) / 8 = 54.93%

So 54.93% is the person's total mark.

All Points To Note Before Booking Maruti Suzuki Baleno

Maruti Suzuki Baleno is the hot topic in automobile world. Recently Baleno sales went past i20, even with fewer dealerships as Baleno is sold only through Nexa dealerships. Waiting period of Baleno now extends up to 8 months for top Alpha model. You can get Zeta model within 5 months and Sigma, Delta within 2-3 months. This is the current average waiting period for Baleno.

Points to Consider Before Booking Baleno
Here I am not doing a feature wise comparison, which you can get from other websites. Here I am giving you a briefing of what I felt from my personal experience.

Take an Extended Test Drive : It is always good to take an extended test drive as it gives you some idea about the merits and demerits of the vehicle. Generally, relationship managers at Nexa dealerships are much more generous than traditional dealers in giving an extended test drive. I drove about 8Km before deciding to return (It was me who decided to stop it, the relationship manager was ready to give me more time, with a smiling face).

Comparison With Hyundai i20 : Since they fall in the same price segment, I was always comparing i20 with Baleno to make a choice. My friend already has an i20, so I am pretty much acquainted with that. I have even drove a couple of hundred kilometers on it. The main difference that I felt between i20 and Baleno is the engine. i20's engine is like a lazy kid who wakes up late even if you push the accelerator pedal all the way down. It has a noticeable turbo lag (I am talking about the petrol here, the diesel has no match here, it is way more powerful). Baleno's engine is more peppy, it responds to pedal inputs without much lag. I actually noticed the difference right from the start. May be the lighter Kerb Weight of Baleno gives it the edge (On paper, power ratings are almost the same). Ligher weight gives Baleno better power to weight ratio. So my verdict is, if you are a driving enthusiast, Baleno simply is the best option.

Where i20 scores is in the build quality. The switches look more premium on i20, whereas Baleno's switches are a straight lift from Swift. Which was a let down for me, especially when you count the money you are paying. Baleno is no match to i20 in terms of build quality. Feature wise they are neck on neck.

As far as ride quality is concerned, I would rate Baleno a notch higher than i20. Baleno offers a bit more plusher ride than i20. I always felt i20's suspension a bit on the stiffer side. 

Back seat width is more on Baleno but it has a bigger tunnel than i20. So the middle passenger will find it easier to travel on i20. Leg room is better on Baleno even with a 6 footer driving. 

Baleno's boot has a huge loading lip, which will make it difficult to load heavy items. In that case, i20 is a better choice. 

I felt the driver's seat of Baleno to be more comfortable than i20 (My height is 165cm for reference). Outside view from driver's seat is more or less the same for both. Gear shifts are butter smooth on both. But the peppy nature of Baleno's engine lets you enjoy driving.

i20 comes with a rear AC which is a boon in hot Indian summers. Baleno misses out on that aspect.

Waiting Period : As I have said earlier, the waiting period for Baleno is up to 8 months. i20 on the other hand has a waiting period of 2 months average.

Importance Of Livestock

Q) Justify that livestock are our mainstay for providing agricultural operations and transport?

Every family in the village is involved with domestic animals, which are an important source of livelihood and employment to villagers. The number of cows are often the indication of the economic status of the rural family. Livestock are our mainstay for providing power for agricultural operations. Machines provide marginal power because of the small and scattered farms in our villages. This is the basic reason for low productivity.

1. Cattle

The humped, Zebu cattle originated in India. The Brahman bull is a hardy, disease resistant animal that quickly gains weight and it is in high demand in western countries. Today we have several good milch, draught and dual purpose breeds. 

Milch - Milk producing. Eg: Red Sindhi

Draught - Work animals. Eg: Siri

Dual Purpose - Eg: Rewati

India has the best water buffaloes in the world which are exported to several countries. Eg: Surti. Swamp buffaloes are used as work animals. Lack of long distance transport and marketing facilities led villagers to select and breed animals that could produce just enough milk for their family needs. This is the reason for low milk productivity of our animals compared to European counterparts. Cross breeds are imported to increase productivity.

2. Sheep and Goats

Income from goats and sheep sustain 15 million people in India, living in regions where agricultural activities are restricted. India has the 6th largest sheep population in the world. Our common breeds produce short wool suitable for making carpets. Eg; Kashmir. For making clothes, imported breeds are used. Goat is considered as Poor Man's Cow in India. Goats are easy to maintain in small areas. Goat meat and skin are in great demands in our country. Apparels and shawls are made of goat skin and hair. Malabari is a good goat breed.

3. Pigs

Pigs can convert most of its feed into high quality protein. In India, pigs are kept by economically backward people who let them eat any rubbish and dirty things. Instead, if looked after well, pigs can reduce much of the protein malnutrition suffered by our rural communities. Eg: White Yorkshire.

Basic Resources For Agriculture In India

Q) "Agriculture is the bed rock of Indian economy". Justify the statement?

Cultivators and agricultural labourers constitute 60% of the total work force in India. For those people, agriculture is not only the chief occupation but also a way of life. Cultivators and agricultural labourers contribute 34.7% of our total net National Product. The majority of farmers are poor and are unable to make inputs required to get maximum production from their land. Our agricultural policies must be labour-intensive to provide employment to a large number of people already engaged in agriculture. Introduction of any drastic labour-reducing technology will throw them out of employment and will create more rural poverty and social unrest.

Basic Resources For Agriculture

1. Sunlight

Theoretically it is possible to get 140 tonnes of crop yield per hectare per year if sunlight, water and carbon dioxide are abundantly available. But in real, only 25 tonnes per hectare per year is yielded. During monsoon, sky is overcast and it restricts sunlight. During summer there is scarcity of water. These two are the main reasons for reduced efficiency. The run off water during monsoon should be collected in tanks in low lying areas, so that they can be used during summer. However, this needs the cooperation of the whole village as construction of a tank is beyond the means of individual farmers. Winter is the best period for agriculture as there will be enough sunlight and moisture.

2. Soil

It takes 50 years to build 1cm of top soil. Every year soil erosion takes away 6000 million tonnes of soil along with nutrients like nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Planting trees and grass is the best solution. Contour bunding and gully-plugging are some scientific techniques. This should be followed by planting green-manure shrubs and trees on field bounds. This is applicable where there is acute demand for land for cultivation. Use of soil for brick making and road construction must be reduced and alternative materials must be introduced. We need a lot of land for agriculture and construction, so we must create country wide awareness of the value of soil and the importance of scientific land use. There are 10 major groups of soil found in India. Alluvial soil, black soil, red and yellow soil, red soil, coastal and deltaic alluvial soil etc are some of them. Before growing crops we must test the soil for nutrients and physical characteristics.

3. Water

Our agriculture depends on rain. Agriculture is basically a gamble on the monsoon. The rainfall during monsoon is not uniform and so we don't have a good growth of rain dependent crops. Most parts of the country receive annual rainfall in 3 months, leaving the rest of the year dry. Floods and droughts are common. The Harappan period shows us how good agriculture and storing grains in large quantities can help us cover the lean years. Our grain reserves helped us pass through the worst drought of 1987. South West monsoon is responsible for over 80% of total rainfall in most parts of the country. We are only using 25% of the available ground water for crop growth.
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