How Can Saline Alkaline Soils Be Reclaimed?

Alkalinity and salinity can be removed by
  • Sealing of all points of leakage from canals, tanks, ponds etc and use of only required amount of water
  • Application of chemicals like gypsum, phosphogypsum, pyrites in addition to organic manures and fertilisers
  • Planting of salt resistant plants like barley, soya, cotton, spinach etc

Ways To Manage Water Resources

Management of water resources is a program to provide an adequate supply of good quality water for various uses without endangering the life of the source or the reserve of water. Efforts must be made to make sure that
  • the water of the right quality is available for all kind of uses
  • there is no wastage or misuse
Water management involves recharging ground water reserves and diverting supply from an area of surplus to the region of scarcity. Recharging of ground water is the most important aspect of water management. In mountains and hills, the forest soil absorbs rain water and holds it. In urban and rural areas, flood water and used water can be directed to pits, where it can filter underground. The excess flow of flood water can be diverted to areas of scarcity. This will remove the dangers of floods and will benefit the regions of scarcity.

Treated domestic and municipal waste water can be use for industrial and agricultural purposes. Fresh water can be produced by desalination of sea water using solar energy. Eg: Bhavanagar in Gujarat. Reducing over consumption is also needed. Leaking taps must be repaired. There is also need to check excessive irrigation.

Recycling

Q) What do you understand by recycling? How recycling of wastes improve resource utilization?

Q) Name two types of waste products that can be reused after recycling. Describe the process of recycling for any one of the products mentioned by you?
 
The process through which the waste resources are again made usable is known as recycling.

1. Scraps and Used Metals

Scrap metal is produced in large quantities in mills and factories. Metals from discarded vehicles, aircrafts, ships and buildings can be melted and recycled for useful purposes. Used aluminum utensils can be collected, melted and shaped into new utensils. The growing demand for scarce metals like copper, lead etc can be met by recycling the used materials.

2. Waste Water

Domestic and municipal waste water is rich in organic nutrients. If germs and poisonous elements are removed, it can be used for irrigation. Waste water is kept in a tank for several days. Heavy particles settle down to the bottom by themselves. Finer particles are made to settle down by adding alum and caustic soda. The clear water is passed through filters or sand and finally air is blown through it. This removes carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide dissolved in water and also adds oxygen to the filtered water, thus helping in purification. Chlorination kills germs and makes water usable. Growing algae in water bodies helps in cleaning water as they absorb phosphates and nitrates that act as nutrients for these plants. These plants can also be used for biogas generation.

3. Solid Waste

In Yokohoma Japan, waste paper is converted to toilet paper. The street lights in Pune city are lighted by biogas produced from human excreta. In Delhi, sewage treatment plant produces cooking gas. Fermentation of wastes such as cattle dung, human excreta, algae etc produces biogas which can be used for a variety of purposes. Fermentation takes place between 28 degree Celsius and 40 degree Celsius and gases produced are mainly methane and carbon dioxide with a small quantity of hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen. Slag the waste product left when metal has been extracted from its ore can be powdered and added to cement for construction. Flyash is another material used as a valuable cementing material. Solid wastes can serve as a very useful resource for providing raw material for our industries, generating energy and manure.

Resource Mapping

Resource mapping is done to locate different resources like water, minerals, forests, vegetation as well as type of land. Mapping of resources makes it possible to visualize how land use could be managed to best advantage. Rural land use map tells us about health of forests and state of deforestation, about pastures and agricultural crops. It also tells us how much land is unutilised. Urban land use maps show housing, commercial buildings, roads, water supply, disposal of waste etc. Preparation of regional land use maps is useful for overall planning and development of the region.

Non-Conventional Renewable Resources of Energy

1. Solar Energy

Solar energy can be used to power solar heaters. It can be used to generate electricity with the help of photo voltaic cells which can be used to power electric vehicles and homes. Rajasthan receives solar energy at the rate of 200 watts/square metre per hour. This energy can be utilised to power villages and homes. Unique feature of solar energy is that it can be generated where needed. Solar cookers are now used in many homes. Photovoltaic cells are now common but their efficiency needs to be improved and their price needs to be brought down.

2. Wind Energy

Wind flow can be harnessed to obtain mechanical energy for fetching water from wells or rivers. Wind mills can be used to run a generator to get electricity. In coastal and hilly areas where wind blows at high speed, a wind mill can be used for supply of electricity to a small town.

3. Wave and Tidal Energy

Wave and tidal energy can be converted into electric energy, particularly where sea water can move into a narrow cut, such as is provided naturally where rivers flow into the sea. Energy of flowing water has been used to run flour mills of small size in Kashmir for a long time. Hydroelectric power stations also work on the same principle. Artificial or natural waterfall is used to turn a turbine which rotates and generates electricity.

4. Geothermal Energy

Hot water and super heated steam of hotsprings can be used to generate electricity. In India there are 46 such spots which can be used to generate electricity.

5. Atomic Energy

Energy released by atoms can be controlled to generate electricity. Nuclear reactors produce heat, which is used to raise steam which rotates turbines to generate electricity. 1Kg of natural Uranium generates energy equal to that produced by 35,000 Kg of coal. Nuclear reactors need to be set up far away from human settlements. Strict safety control must be employed and radioactive wastes must be carefully disposed off.

6. Biogas

Cow dung, algae, duck weeds etc can be used for production of biogas. In addition to generating cooking gas, biogas can also be used to raise steam, which can be used for running machines or for running turbines to generate electricity. Large biogas plants can supply the needs of small villages. Leftover after generating gas can be used as manure. India is setting up a number of biogas plants in rural areas.

How Did Ozone Layer Get Depleted?

Widespread use of Chlorofluorocarbon has caused the depletion of ozone layer. These are gases which readily liquify when compressed. Hence it is used as a refrigerant, propellant in aerosol cans and in plastic foams. Chlorofluorocarbons are very stable and they accumulate in the atmosphere where they react with ozone.

Nitrogen oxides also play a significant role in ozone destruction. Introduction of nitrogen oxides to upper atmosphere by jet planes could decrease the ozone to dangerously low levels. As a result UV radiations reach earth causing skin cancer, affect crops, interfere with oxygen cycle and even distort weather patterns.

Impact of Increasing Population on Environment

Increasing population fastens the exhaustion of limited resources like coal, petroleum, iron etc. Large population demands more food. Land is not available for agriculture to support fast growing population. Growing population puts immense pressure on the availability of drinking water. Waste water is not recycled either. Increase in the number of vehicles adds to air pollution.

Persistent Pollutants

Pollutants that remain in an unchanged form for a long period of time are known as persistent pollutants. Eg: Pesticides, Nuclear wastes, plastic etc. Most of these are toxic as well.

Water Pollution

Q) Explain 6 ways by which water bodies of a country gets polluted?

Q) How does aquatic fauna get killed due to heavy metal pollution and Eutrophication?

Q) What is algal bloom?
  1. Water is required by industries for cooling, washing, diluting chemicals and cleaning purposes. Factories dump their wastes into rivers or sea.
  2. Wastes from urban and rural settlements account for 4 times as much water as industrial wastes. Most of these water are discharged untreated into water courses. Only 217 cities in India have partial or full sewage treatment facilities.
  3. Water flowing through fields which use pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers contribute to pollution. This water on absorption also pollutes the underground sources.
  4. Nuclear and thermal power plants use water for cooling. This hot water along with chemicals is discharged to water streams, resulting in a temperature rise, which is harmful for aquatic life.
  5. Ferries leave oil on water, ships leave oil in seas which cuts the oxygen supply for plants and fish in water. Offshore oil spills and petroleum exploration are also dangerous.
  6. Acid water from mines and also from rain pollutes water in seas and rivers.
  7. Suspended particles in air, such as the pesticides sprayed through an aircraft are brought down by rain and cause water pollution.
Heavy Metal Pollution

Heavy metals especially mercury builds up in the food chain. Industries like mining, manufacture of electronic equipment, paper making have increased the amount of mercury in water. Mercury is not easily excreted. Once it enters the food chain, its concentration goes on increasing at each level. Eg: From plants > large fish > humans. In 1950s mercury poisoning in Japan killed 17 people.

Eutrophication

Materials such as sewages or organic wastes from milk plants, slaughter houses, fish processing plants and run off from agricultural lands increase the productivity of water causing algae to grow in abundance. Sometimes the whole water surface gets covered by algae. This is called algal bloom. Slowly the entire water body becomes a green nourishing soup. The death of algae promotes the growth of a large decomposer population. Decomposers break down the dead algae using a lot of oxygen present in the water. In addition to this, the living algae will also consume oxygen from water at night for respiration. This decreases the amount of oxygen available to fishes, causing them to die. Eutrophication leads to loss of life in water bodies like ponds and lakes and not in flowing water.

Photochemical Smog

Photochemical Smog, a secondary pollutant is formed when two pollutants nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon found in automobile exhausts react with one another in the presence of sunlight to produce Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and PAN, which then appears as a yellowish brown haze. Breathing  ozone affects respiratory and nervous system. It causes respiratory distress, affects eye membrane, stimulates tears and headache. Ozone damages rubber articles, textiles and discolours paintings. Smog is harmful to timber. Plants exposed to PAN exhibit leaf mottling and reduced growth.

Influence of Indian Cinema On Society And Vice Versa

Indian Cinema brought together Indians from different languages, regions and cultures. People from non-hindi areas contributed more to hindi cinema. Eg: A R Rahman. Studios from Tamil Nadu like Gemini and AVM played an important role in promotion of hindi films. It provided the much needed bridge between North and South. South has given a no.of famous heroines to hindi cinema. Eg: Hema Malini, Sridevi, Aishwarya Rai. Great directors like Mani Ratnam and Priyadarshan comes from non-hindi areas.

Contribution of people from non-hindi areas helped popularise hindi all over the country and create a pan India scenario. Indian cinema helped in developing and preserving the composite culture of India. Indian cinema has always been secular with very few exceptions. It promoted good will and love among Hindus, Muslims and Christians. Films often had instances of inter-religious friendships. The acceptability of non-hindu heroes is another evidence. Eg: Sharukh Khan, Amir Khan. Music is another contribution of Indian cinema. International acknowledgement is another aspect. Eg: Pather Panchali.

Evolution And Impact Of Indian Cinema

Q) "Indian Cinema completed 100 years in 2013", trace the evolution and the impact of Indian cinema through the years?

1. The Era of Silent Films (1913 - 1931)

Raja Harishchandra by Dada Saheb Phalke was the first silent film. 3 films were released in 1913 and the number kept on increasing every year. After 3 years R.Nataraj Mudliar made 'Keechak Vadham' in South India. Film censor boards were established in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras in 1920. Nal Damayanti made with Italian collaboration was the first Indian film made with foreign collaboration. Themes were religious,mythological and sometimes social. Two traditions of art films and commercial films came about.

2. Pre-Independence Talkies (1931 - 1947)

Foreign talkie films were screened in India before the first Indian talkie Alam Ara was made by Ardeshir M Irani (A.M Irani) in 1931. The film was in Hindi and it had 12 songs in it. It was from there on songs and music became an integral part of Indian cinema. First Tamil talkie Kalidas was made in 1931 as well. Art cinema ran parallel to commercial cinema during the era of talkies also. But the division was not as strong as during the post-independence era. 

During that time films were known for their production houses rather than heroes and heroines. Eg: Gemini Studio film, AVM Studio Film etc. Sairandhri in 1933 was the first colour film. But black and white films still continued until 1970. During this period cinema did not contribute to freedom movement in the fear of censorship. But the ideas were expressed indirectly through religious and historical cinema. Cinema also contributed to social reform.

3. Post-Independence Cinema (1947 - Today)

Even though censorship was there, film makers enjoyed greater liberty in making political and social films in this era. Indian cinema advanced following the world cinema. Satyajit Ray and Adoor Gopalakrishnan are some of the prominent film makers of this era. Many films were acknowledged internationally. Eg: Pather Panchali, Lagaan. Rajnikanth and Prem Nazir became popular as regional heroes. Hope of better life in independent India led to films like Mother India.

Moral degeneration of cinema took place in the 1970s. Parallel cinema (art cinema) took up social issues. National Film Financing Corporation (NFFC) and financial assistance from state governments helped art film makers. Art cinema was of two types, the 'committed' cinema of Adoor Gopalakrishnan type and 'experimental' cinema of Mani Kaul type. 'Commited' type was a kind of social protest. After 1980s, popular cinema ruled the arena.

Theatrical Forms In India

1. Westernised Theatrical Form

Theatres in Bombay were influenced by Elizabethan theatre. Even the construction was copied. Western art movements also influenced Indian theatre. Expressionism, naturalism and absurdism were some of them. Theatre of the absurd was adopted at that time. Stanislavsky influenced writing, acting and the presenting of plays. Brekht's influence was marked on the street plays.

2. Sanskrit Theatrical Forms

Sanskrit form influenced in 2 ways
  • Leading Sanskrit plays were translated to Indian languages and staged. Eg: Abigyan Shakuntalam
  • Staging of these plays and some of the modern plays were attempted as per the guidelines of Natyashastra. It was not successful though
3. Folk Forms

The influence of folk forms was more than the Sanskrit form. Several writers incorporated folk forms in their plays. B.V Karant successfully staged Barnam Van (based on Shakespeare's Macbeth) by Yakshagan form. Some others experimented in presenting western plays in folk form. Folk forms have kept alive the diversities and specificity of India's social and cultural life.

4. Others

a) One Act Play : It has shorter duration than normal play. It consists of just one act. The exact difference is between a story and a novel. Small plays were written to present at the beginning of a play or during interval. This continued until radio came about. But One Act Plays continued on the street plays.

b) Radio Feature : Plays started being presented on the radio once it became a popular medium. It was essential for the radio plays to convey the story mainly through dialogues. Keeping this in mind, many features were written in many Indian languages both as one act plays as well as normal plays.

Forms of Modern Indian Theatre

1. Parsi Theatre

Bombay was the centre of activity of Parsis. The Bombay theatre was established in 1776 and only English plays were staged there. It was open to officials of East India company only. It had several amenities. In 1846, Grant Road Theatre was set up, which played Hindi-Urdu and Marathi plays in the later stage. Grant Road Theatre struggled initially due to lack of support from government. Officers deserted the theatre and sailors, soldiers and traders started visiting the theatre. They often made loud screams and noises inside the theatre.

Slowly Parsi theatres started to stage Indian plays. Initially the actors were Parsis and the ticket rate was less expensive when compared to English plays. Increasing popularity of Parsi theatres led to the opening of a number of theatres in Bombay. Most of the play writers were Parsis and the quality of literary material was not great but their contribution was immensely important. The thematic content was mostly from Persian background but once Hindus and Muslims started watching, such themes were also included.

Historical and mythological themes dominated and were presented in a romantic and melodramatic way. Parsi theatres had no place for music. The Opera used by Dadi Patel opened the flood gates as far as music in Parsi theatres were concerned. 'Inder Sabha' influenced a lot of other plays. It was translated to several languages. The story line of all plays were similar. A man or a girl falls in love, becomes one after crossing many hurdles. There were magical powers and mesmerizing situations to attract people.

2. Elite Theatre

Educated Indians, exposed to western plays and theatres established the Elite Theatre. It started in Calcutta by Levdef (1765). Famous Bengali poet Michael Madhusudan Dutt revived Bengali plays to international standards. The trend was followed by other languages as well. As a result two major theatrical traditions formed. One was that of the elite, artistic and the experimental theatre which provided a certain level of excellence to the art of Indian theatres. The other was that of the People's theatre which gave a certain purpose and political relevance to Indian theatre.

3. Peoples Theatre

Indian Peoples Theatre Association (IPTA) was established. With IPTA a new kind of theatre came into existence. IPTA initiated an all India movement of the theatre for the people. They helped bring them together under a common platform. IPTA branches were spread in different parts of India after 1943. This encouraged writing and screening of people oriented plays in almost all Indian languages. IPTA made significant contributions in the field of songs, music, dance and film making. IPTA's main activities were in Bengal, Andhra, Kerala etc. IPTA not only made Indian theatre progressive but also enriched it by incorporating various theatrical forms into it. IPTA staged its theatres among common people and participated enthusiastically in popular movement. After independence IPTA weakened as writers, musicians and directors joined cinema.

Evolution of Theatre Tradition In India

1. Sanskrit Theatre

Rig Veda, the oldest text in Sanskrit does not include drama as an art form. However Mantra Sahitya in Rig Veda contains Sanlap Sukhtas (romantic verses) which refers to dramatic literature in its original form. Urvasi and Pururva romance in Rig Veda has been developed in a no.of later Sanskrit texts. Kalidasa based his epic play Vikramorvashiyam on Urvasi and Pururva story. Yajur Veda makes a reference to the term Abhineta. Natyashasthra written between 3rd and 5th centuries AD focuses on 2 themes -Rasa and the means of expressing rasa.

Natyashastra talks about 4 ways of expressing feelings namely gestures, oral, spiritual and properties. Natyashastra also described ways of managing the stage. Dance and music were considered essential ingredients in the play. There is also a reference to desirable qualities found in an actor. Ancient India had a tradition of organising plays on important occasions like marriage, grihapravesh etc. Plays for ruling class used to be enacted in the forts or temples but those for common people could be played in any open space or even during travels. Ancient Sanskrit texts have elaborate references to the size of the theatres. Natyashastra refers to theatres of a squarish size.

2. Folk Theatre

Many scholars believe that folk theatre co-existed with Sanskrit theatre. With time, Sanskrit theatre faded but folk theatre continued. 20 different folk forms exist in India. Eg: Ramlila and Raslila in North India, Kudiyattam in Kerala. Folk plays originated from Sangitaka. Sangitaka contains 5 elements - song, musical instruments, dance, auditorium and Nat-Nati (story telling couple). These elements were shared by Sanskrit and folk plays although the nature of the auditorium varied. Some folk plays didn't need a stage at all. Raslila could be performed on stage as well as on floor. The thematic content of folk plays were of 2 kinds - worldly and religious. Ramlila and Raslila were religious.

3. Modern Theatre

Modern Indian theatre is influenced by Sanskrit theatre, folk theatre and western theatre traditions. Actually western theatre tradition forms the basis of modern Indian theatre. Sanskrit theatre lost its popularity during medieval times, but folk theatre continued among common people. Modern Indian theatre started with the coming of British. British developed Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Surat as important cities and set up theatres for entertainment. Levdef set up Bengali theatre and played plays like Disguise and Love is the best doctors over 200 years ago. Soon others followed setting up theatres. 

Commercial interests led to the formation of theatrical companies of which Persian theatrical companies became popular. They toured various regions and popularised plays by writing them in Indian languages. Modern Indian drama was greatly influenced by West. Indian tradition was to end plays happily but tragedy and comedy came in as an influence of western theatres. Modern Indian theatre was also influenced by social events like modernisation and renaissance. Along with the initial themes of history and mythology, social and political themes were also introduced.

Incorporation of Sanskrit and folk elements increased the importance of music, song and dances. Eg: Parsi theatres. Post independence theatre also incorporated Sanskrit and folk traditions but retained the supremacy of western tradition. After 1970's, theatre broke out of auditoria and surfaced on the open streets. This gave a new dimension without diminishing the significance of stage based plays.

Modern Indian Painting

Modern Indian painting rose by the end of 19th century. Many talented painters became adepts in the current style of European painting and in techniques of oil and water colour. Eg: Raja Ravi Varma through the paintings of mythological subjects and portraiture. Abhanindranath tried to re-create a national style in painting. He and his students experimented in techniques of Indian minature, frescos, scroll and pata paintings. This new artistic faith called Bengal school of painting spread all over India. Awakened by nationalism, they tried to copy old master pieces of art, aiming at revival. But soon the romantic phase ended and the school readily yielded to stronger modern aspirations.

Rabindranath Tagore dissociated himself from revivalist thought as early as in 20's. 'Painterly Paintings' in which the colour by itself is an important element in modern painting, independent of the subject matter if any came about. Modern Indian painting was a complete rejection of the past. Traditionalism was rejected and preference was given to progressivism. Modern Indian paintings reflect the complexity of modern life. Painters were city dwellers and they were not free from the complexities of modern life. 

Gaganendranath studied the pictorial possibilities of light. He used his art for social comment, often with a pleasant satire. Amrita Shergil symbolizes the interaction of Indian and European tradition, evident from her works as well as heredity. Jamini Roy focused on folk art, Pata and the Scroll. The positive achievement of this period was the creation of a ferment rather than a precise definition of aesthetic objectives and stylistic canons.
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