Aesthetics In Painting Shortnote

The art of painting is the expression of ideas and emotions with the creation of certain aesthetic qualities in 2D visual language. Aesthetics is the science of beauty. It is the study of beauty and to a lesser extent, its opposite, the ugly. It includes, general or theoretical studies of the arts or philosophy of arts, art criticism and psychology and sociology of arts. Aesthetic function is culture related - psychological feeling which is not governed by any intention.

How To Limit WiFi Speed For Other Users On Netgear Router - Solved

I have a cousin who visits my home during weekend. The moment he steps into my house, the WiFi speed sucks because he is always downloading something or watching YouTube videos. Myself being a person who works from home, it becomes very difficult for me to get my work done properly because my cousin's phone sucks the speed out of my internet connection. It reached a stage where I became so angry with my cousin that I switched off my WiFi broadcast and used wired LAN connection for my PC. So I decided to control the speed of my WiFi connection for different users. I use a Netgear router and here is how I did it.

How To Limit WiFi Speed For Other Users On Netgear Router?

In almost all Negear routers there is a setting called QoS (Quality of Service). What QoS does is that, it assigns priority for different devices or applications. For eg: If you set the priority of your device 'Highest', then your device will get the best speeds out of the WiFi connection when multiple devices are connected to your network. The best thing about QoS is that, the culprit won't even know that you have put a cap on his internet speeds (that's the best way to deal with your over exploiting relatives). QoS kicks in whenever there is a strain in the internet speeds.

In order to access QoS,
  1. Login to your router settings through http://routerlogin.net/
  2. On the ADVANCED tab, click on SET UP > QoS SET UP
  3. Now tick the box TURN INTERNET QoS ACCESS ON
  4. Now click on SET UP QoS RULE on QoS Priority Rule List - This is where we set the device priority. I assume that your phone or PC requires the highest priority.
  5. Scroll down and click on ADD PRIORITY RULE
  6. Now in PRIORITY CATEGORY, choose MAC ADDRESS - The mac address of your phone can be found from Settings > About Phone > Status > WiFi Mac Address. The Mac address of your PC connected via a wired LAN cable can be found out from the connected wired devices list. Go to BASIC tab on your router settings. Click on ATTACHED DEVICES, and see under wired devices. If your PC is connected via WiFi, find out the MAC address via elimination method. Disconnect the devices one by one until your PC is the only device connected and find the mac address from the attached devices area on router setting.
  7. Now you have the MAC addresses and then select the device from the MAC device list or you can enter the MAC address manually. Select the priority option from Highest, High, Normal and Low. Don't forget to give the lowest priority to the MAC address of the culprit, in my case, my beloved cousin.
  8. Click Apply and the set up rule will be saved. From now on whenever your WiFi connection encounters a bottleneck, your device will get the highest priority and better speed and all others will be using maximum bandwidth only after your use.
The genius thing about QoS is that, my cousin can still get the maximum speed when I am not using internet. His connection will slow down only when I am working or surfing the internet. The improvement I noticed after setting QoS was that, I never got my Skype meetings disconnected. I had no disconnection issues ever after.

India Post Tracking Details Not Found - What To Do Next?

India Post provides tracking details for a variety of consignments including speed post and registered post. The tracking details come live on the India Post website almost after 30 min after posting the mail. This is the minimum time period for tracking details to be available on the website. Sometimes you may not even see the tracking details for the first couple of days after sending the mail. This doesn't mean that your article is not mailed. It is generally a delay in scanning events done by the post office officials.

Sometimes the tracking details might not get updated for a long period. The most noticed issue is that, the scanning events for first couple of days will be available but none thereafter. The interesting thing is that, your article might be delivered in correct time, it is just that tracking details are not up to date. As a person who sends a lot of Registered and Speed Post articles to various places in India, now I am pretty much used to these kind of issues. I would advice you to wait for at least 7 days after mailing, for the tracking details to be updated (This is the maximum period required for a speed post or registered article to reach anywhere in India).

What To Do If Tracking Details Are Not Updated Even After 7 Days?

If online tracking events does not show 'Delivered' status even after 7 days, there are 3 things you can do.

1. Contact the post office where you posted the article and lodge a written complaint. They will track it down for you.

2. Lodge a complaint on the customer care portal provided on India Post website, http://ccc.cept.gov.in/ComplaintRegistration.aspx . I think, this is the most recommended and easier method. If you go by the first method, the response to your complaint is completely at the mercy of the office staff. You have more control over this method though. Go to the above website, fill in the details of the article and furnish other details. Don't forget to save the complaint number provided by the website, because you will need it the next time you go to track the status of your complaint.

Give it a couple of days for the Post Office Department to check on the issue. From my experience, it takes about 7 days to get any sort of reply. You can know the status of your complaint from this link http://www.indiapost.gov.in/CCCComplaintTracking.aspx .

3. This is the fastest method. I developed this method myself as the turn around time for online complaint was almost a week. The technique is, just make a telephone call to the destination post office and provide them the tracking number and ask them whether the article was delivered. The name of the destination post office can be found out from the receipt you get from the post office. 

For eg: Suppose I mailed an article to Kuthuparamba, Kerala. Now I will google the telephone number of Kuthuparamba post office. You can find the telephone number of any post office by searching online. Once you get the contact number, just call them and ask the status of your article by giving the article tracking number.

You can try any of the 3 methods. In most cases, your article might be delivered on time. It may just be a delay in scanning. I am saying this from years of experience with mailing articles.

Essential Elements & Stylistic Classification of Music In India

A composition becomes a musical composition when it rests on 3 factors Swara, Taal and Raag. These are the fundamental constituents of music. 

1. Sound (Swara)

Swara is that sound which has some meaning and which possesses a distinct identity. Sound becomes music only when it holds a specific connotation among other sounds along with rhythm. All kinds of music, Indian and Western is based on Swaras. Basic Swara is called Shadaj. It is related to 6 other Swaras. The spectrum of swaras in Indian music is thus composed of 7 bands known as Saptak. Shruti is a microtone which creates a swara by adhering to a particular pitch.

2. Beat (Taal)

Taal is a process through which rhythm gets depicted in musical compositions. Taal is further measured in terms of the numerical content of the pulse in each composition. 

Slow Pulse > Vilambit
Medium Pulse > Madhyam
Fast Pulse > Drut

Taals are generally played through instruments like Mridang, Pankhwaj, Tabla etc.

3. Melody (Raag)

The central manifestation of Raag is delightfulness. Apart from deligthfulness, 10 other features make a Raag. The various permutations and combinations of these music give rise to Raag music. Raagini, a sub-division of Raag integrates with sensuousness.

Stylistic Classification of Music

1. Marg and Desi Music

Marg music is used abundantly in the religious ceremonies. Desi music is used during popular festivals or occasions for public entertainment. There is no difference in their origin. Marg stream distanced itself, as religious ceremony became the monopoly of a specialized group and became designated as classical music. Desi music remained in the domain of the people and gained popularity all over India. Dthrupad and Khayal are Marg music. Unique feature of Desi Music is the variety of sounds that it incorporates. Eg: Ghazals.

Marg music and Desi music are inter-related. Marg music will stagnate if they don't keep a livewire contact with popular forms and tastes. Khayal style evolved in such a way. There has to be a continuous interaction between Marg music and Desi music for the Marg music to survive and move forward. In the same way Desi music cannot live unaffected by the changes in Marg style. The interaction is more intense than you would have thought.

2. North Indian and Carnatic Styles

The distinguishing feature is the quality of local colours in them. In the Ancient text Brihaddeshi, the classification under North and Carnatic style is available. Both originated from the same source. The variation started creeping in the form of local colour as early as 7th century AD. Between 7th and 13th century AD, Indian music came into contact with music of other countries. The influence of Irani music led to the further growth of North Indian and Carnatic music.

The major difference between the two is the purity of Srutis in Carnatic style unlike the North Indian music where Srutis tend to merge into each other at the time of rendering raag. Purity of srutis gave pure swara whereas in North Indian music, it shifted to lower or upper contours of pure swaras called Komal or Teenra.

The other difference is in the composition of raagas. Carnatic style follows the purity of swaras as the principal determining element in composition. North Indian or Hindustani style practices the merger of raagas as the central element in compositions. Main forms of Hindustani style are Dhrupad, Khayal etc. Keerthanam belongs to Carnatic style. 

In Carnatic style the performer gives equal importance to swara and shabd while Hindustani music gives priority to swara over shabd. During the last century, both forms have become close.

Stylistic Classification of Dance Form of India

Q) Short note on Indian classical dance forms?

1. Bharatanatyam

Oldest classical dance form. The dance was performed both in solo dance and in groups. The present solo dance form was crystallized by 19th century through the contribution of 4 brothers from Tanjore-Chinnaya, Pannayya, Vadivelu and Sivanandam. In villages, Bharatanatyam continued as part of the presentation of Bhagavata Mela tradition. It was performed by male dancers. Rukmani Devi studied Bharatanatyam, which led to a revolution. Female dancers from families of traditional repositories joined her. The most important among them were the Devadasis who decided to perform in the public. The institutions started by Rukmani Devi and others revived and reconstructed the dance form.

2. Kathak

Popular dance for of North India. Kathak was developed and given patronage in the court of Nawabs of Awadh. Two prominent musical instruments used heavily in Kathak are Tabla and Pankhawaj. Krishnaleela is the main story enacted.

3. Kathakali

Dance form of Kerala and Malabar. Katha and Keli meaning dance-drama. It was revived by the ruler of Travancore, Maharaja Veera Kerala Varma in 17th century AD. Lyrics is influenced by Jaidev's Gita Govinda. Only male dancers are involved. Even female roles are handled by male dancers. A group of singers keep continuously reciting poems and epic. Actions are executed by artists only through poses, body postures and face. Make up is elaborate and the white line is called Chuttee. The head-dress defines the hierarchical status of different artists participating in the performance. Dance is performed all through the night on a specially designed stage. Vallathol the famous poet set up the Kerala Kala Mandalam which has since done commendable work.

Indian Dances - Theories And Techniques

According to Natyashastra, " This art will be enriched by the teachings of every scripture (shastra) and will give a review of all arts and crafts." The theory of dance is an integral part of the tradition of drama. At the very early stage of development, dance and drama fused into one. By the time Natyashastra was composed, dance was very much the part of drama. There are three principles that govern the structure of Indian dance.
  1. The mode of presentation modes (dharmis), stage way (natya) and way of the world (loka)
  2. Types of styles (vrittis), graceful (kaiseki), grand (sattavati), energetic (arabhati), verbal (bharati)
  3. Types of acting (abhinaya), gestures (angika), vocal (vachiak), stage props (acharya), temperament (sattvika)
A combination of all 3 or most of these principles characterizes the classical dance.

Technique

Dancing is divided into 3 categories namely Natya, Nritya and Nritta. Natya corresponds to drama and Nritya to gesticulation when it is performed to the words sung in a musical melody. Nritta corresponds to pure dancing, where movements of the body do not express any mood (bhava) and do not convey any meaning. The technique of dancing can be classified under pure dancing (nritta) and dancing with miming and gesticulation (nritya).

a) Nritta

Nritta technique emphasizes human movement. Indian dance is a string of stylized and symbolic poses. Nritta involves not only the technique of rendering rhythm (tala) through movements which do not have any meaning, but also projecting specific poses within the given rhythmic cycle. Natyashastra contains detailed analysis of movements of major limbs (angas) and minor limbs (upangas). Head, breast or chest, sides, hips and feet are major limbs. Eyes, eyebrows, nose, lips, mouth are minor limbs.

b) Abhinaya (Nritya)

In abhinaya, the background music contains poetry or narrative which is set to music and rhythm. It is this poetry which is interpreted by the dancer. In classical styles, it consists of portraying Sancharibhavas and Thayibhavas. This is done through a series of angikabhinaya in which each line of poetry is interpreted in as many different ways as possible. In doing so, the principle of Natyadharmi is fully followed. The dancer assumes different roles without the change of dress or costume.

Fairs of India

Indian fairs represent cultural, social, commercial and occasionally religious aspects of Indian life. Large and small fairs have always been attached to festivals of India. Eg: Muharam fair is of substantial size. Kumbh Mela is different from other fairs as it is purely religious. It is conducted ever 12 years at one of the 4 holy places (Allahabad, Ujjain, Nasik, Haridwar) in turn. Pushkar Mela is held on the day of Karthik Purnima. Devotees gather around Pushkar lake and take a ceremonial bath in it. It is the only Brahma temple. Cattle market of annual Pushkar fair is famous among tourists. Saliana (wrestling matches), Sonepur Mela (In Bihar, for elephants) are some of the non-religious fairs.

Urs melas conducted annually at the Dargah of famous Sufi saints is visited by people of all communities. Ajmer Sharif is the Dargah of Muinuddin Chisti. Annual Urs celebrations is conducted for 7 days. Sufi music and special food are unique features. Similar Urs are conducted at Gwalior and many places in Delhi. These occasions provide an opportunity for people of all communities to gather, mingle and interact with on another.

Trade fairs are the modern-day addition to Indian fairs. They are held at different times all across the country. Eg: Pragati Maidan is an important venue of different kinds of trade fairs.

Features of Festivals And Fairs of India

1. Most Indian festivals are socio-religious in content. Almost all have religious rituals. There are two aspects for a traditional festival. One is worship, which is performed according to the specific religious norms. For eg: Hindus worship Saraswati during Mahanavami. The other aspect represents our composite culture. Participation is not restricted to a particular community. Eg: Holi, Eid. Despite strong religious content, our festivals represent our unity and social bond.

2. Most of the festivals of Hindus are seasonal in nature. They represent the change in season and mark the beginning of harvesting seasons. All seasonal festivals are celebrated during two harvesting seasons, Kharif (Aug-Oct) and Rabi ( Mar-Apr). Spring season is another period. The base of all seasonal festivals are agriculture. Eg: Onam marks the harvesting of paddy crop. 

A closely related component is cattle worship. Eg: 3rd day of Pongal is called Mattu Pongal, which is dedicated to cattle worship. Horns are polished and flowers hung around their necks. Jellikkettu is also conducted. Fire worship is another important feature of seasonal festivals. 1st day of Pongal called Bogi Pongal is celebrated by litting bonfire. Some festivals are celebrated at a particular time but under different names all over India. Eg: Makara Sankranti in Karnataka and North India is celebrated as Pongal in Andra and Tamil Nadu.

3. All these festivals have socio-cultural aspects as well and involve people in an area irrespective of caste and religion. Kathakali dance and Vallamkali during Onam is enjoyed by all people of Kerala. Hindus join Iftar parties during Ramzan.

4. Indian fairs are devoid of religious content except Kumbh Mela. Fairs are the secular parts of Indian culture. Buying and selling of cattle, handicrafts etc take place during fairs. They represent the cultural-commercial life of traditional India.

Tourism and Fairs And Festivals

Fairs and festivals have tremendous tourism potential. We must present unique aspects of these festivals and fairs in a proper manner to attract tourists. Eg: Boar race during Onam season attracts a lot of international tourists. Jallikkettu is a spectacle for foreign tourists.

Customs And Rituals

Q) Write a detailed note on the meaning, significance and types of customs and rituals with examples from the Indian society?

Q) How do sociologists perceive the functions of rituals, customs and ceremonies? Give an account of prevalent Indian customs and rituals related to Life Cycle?

Q) 'In India rituals and customs are closely knit in social and religious life of people'. Justify the above statement citing relevant examples?

According to Edmond Leach, rituals, ceremony and customs are " used interchangeably to denote any non-instinctive predictable action or series of actions that cannot be justified by a 'rational' means-to-ends type of explanation".

Some experts define rituals as "stylized repetitive behavior that is explicitly religious" and ceremony as "merely social even in explicit meaning".

Role And Functions of Rituals, Customs & Ceremonies

a) Socialization : It is a socializing force. They bring the individuals of a society together and integrates them.

b) Social Control : They act as instruments of social control. They are linked with worldly punishments and rewards. Sometimes priests ask followers to do some Poojas to correct wrong deeds.

c) Merit and Status : They are performed to get social prestige and status. Eg: Yaga

d) Identification : Certain rituals are performed to get a specific identity. Eg: Vermilion

e) Spiritual Advancement : It is performed as a mode of spiritual satisfaction and advancement. Eg: Pilgrimage, fasting. It is common in all religions.

f) Systems of Healing or Therapy : This is the most common function. Rituals and ceremonies are used for healing purposes. Some priests live by conducting rituals and ceremonies as their occupation, so it has an economic basis as well.

Types of Rituals And Customs

Customs and Rituals Related to Life Cycle

a) Birth and Childhood

Rituals start with pregnancy. There are other rituals for getting pregnant. Preference is for male child and there are rituals to ensure the birth of a male child. When a child is born, mother is considered polluted by most communities. A ritual bath is performed on 10th or 30th or 40th day after birth. Child after birth is given a bath and sacred chants are whispered in child's ear. Same is the case for Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Sikhs. Eg: 'Jesus Christ is Lord' is whispered by Christians. Shaving the head of new born is called Mundan ceremony. Male goats are sacrificed by Muslims on this occasion. Namakarana and first eating of cereals is also conducted.

b) Initiation

A new born is supposed to undergo some rituals and ceremonies before he is adopted into religion or social community. Eg: Thread ceremony in Hindus, Circumcision for Muslims, Baptism for Christians. Initiation of learning and puberty rites for girls are also performed as rituals.

c) Marriage

Marriage is a religious social affair. Elaborate customs and rituals are associate with it. Beginning with the selection of bride or groom, fixing the date for marriage and performance of marriage will have detailed procedures and rituals. The presence of a priest for marriage is almost universal. Marriage takes place mostly in the place of worship. Eg: Christians, Sikhs. Hindus have the most elaborate rituals. Dowry is customary in most communities. Marital status of a woman is shown by symbols like Vermilion, bangles, nose bud etc.

d) Death and After

Rituals and ceremonies depend on the philosophy of life and death in different communities. Hindus believe in rebirth while Christians and Muslims do not. Most communities believe that only the body dies and the soul survives. Concept of life after death is also there. Most rituals and ceremonies are performed with a view to give peace to the departed soul, a happy life after death. Observance of pollution after death and prayer for the peace of the soul is universal in India. The body will be given a bath ritual under the supervision of a priest. Brahmins give the prayers for the Hindus. Cremation and burial with rituals are common among communities. Hindus collect the ashes and is immersed in Ganges or other rivers. Special prayers are offered on 3rd,10th,13th and 40th day after death.

Other Customs & Rituals

Rituals are performed during harvesting, building construction or starting a business. Grihapravesh is very common. Auspicious dates are chosen and prayers accompanied with some rituals are performed. Most wide spread rituals are for warding off illness and for general well being. These are common in tribal societies. Pilgrims are occasions for indulging in rituals. Hindus take bath in rivers, Muslims go to Mecca for performing Haj etc. Festivals also have their specific rituals.

Concept of Caste and Class In Indian Context

Before British rule caste and class overlapped. But after British rule they became distinct categories.

Concept of Caste

Caste is a system of social stratification which lies at the very root of Indian social structure. Caste structure is a pattern of social behavior in which groups and individuals are guided by prescribed set of norms, values and sanctions. Groups or individuals occupy specific status within and in relation to other groups. If a person is born in a particular caste, he takes the associated status. Thus caste is a closed ended social group. Sociologists define caste as a hereditary endogamous group which is usually localized. They take up a particular occupation and position in the local hierarchy of castes. Relations between castes are governed by the concepts of pollution and purity and generally maximum commensality among other things.

Even though castes vary according to region and religions, there are some aspects that help us to identify it.

a) 'Varna' system recognised all over India. 4 varnas namesly Brahmins (priests), Kshatriya (rulers), Vaishya (traders) and Shudra (peasants). Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya are divine or twice born, so they can wear sacred thread at the vedic rite of Upanayana.

b) Caste structure is closely related to blood relationship among Hindus in India. The reason is the endogamous nature of caste system.

c) Castes have been associated with certain occupations. They were categorized into unclean (scavenging) and clean (learning veda by Brahmins) occupations based on the degree of pollution or purity associated with them. Each caste had a Panchayat which controlled the socio-cultural and territorial boundary of the caste. They had the power of punishment and fine to keep its members in control. 

There was a patron-client relationship among different castes of a village or a region. Caste system is present in other religions as well.

Concept of Class

Class has been defined as a king of social group which is neither legally defined no religiously sanctioned. It is a group of people occupying similar social and economic position. Wealth, education, income and occupation are some of the determinants of class. Class is relatively open, anyone who satisfies the criteria can become its member. Eg: Upper class, middle class and lower class. Classes became prominent during colonial rule. Before, the village of India were self-sufficient and there was no differentiation in terms of class among the village population.

How To Clean Canon Printer Printhead - Solved

Is your canon printer giving you problems? The symptoms of a blocked printhead are lines going across the printed paper, letters not printed properly etc. When you search online for a solution with the symptoms as search term, you might be directed to a different problem, which is the 'Printhead Alignment'. In 90% cases printhead alignment won't be the problem. Canon printers have a built-in print head alignment mechanism, which you can use by referring the user manual. 

I would always suggest to do the 'printhead alignment' first and then if the issue persists, go for a printhead cleaning. An ink blocked printhead will provide results something like the one given in the picture below

This is an absolute horrible result. The cause of this problem is, the ink gets clot in the small holes of the printhead. Canon inkjet printers need to be used at least once in a week, otherwise it will increase the chances of ink getting clot. The ink clot prevents the movement of ink from the cartridge to the paper thus giving results similar to the one in the picture.

How To Clean Canon Printer Printhead?

The reason why I am posting this article is because, I was completely aware of this printhead problem. I called Canon customer care and booked a complaint. The service guy came to me and told me that it was the problem with cartridge and I was asked to buy a new one. Are you kidding me? The catridges were new and full of ink and it almost costs around Rs.3000 in India (colour and black combined). So I did some research online and came to know about the printhead problem. I decided to clean the printhead. Rather than giving you a lengthy description, you can watch this YouTube video to understand how it is done.


The Ispopropyl Alchol referred to in the video is nothing but the medical spirit which you can get from medical stores. Or as an alternative, you can use nail polish remover/computer screen cleaning solution.

Conservation of Culture

Q) Why do we need to conserve culture? Describe the main areas of Indian culture where conservation is needed?

Q) Identify important areas from the Indian tourism point of view where conservation is required. Explain with relevant examples?

Q) What should be the role of the government in the preservation, conservation of culture while promoting tourism?

Conservation has to be a concerted effort. It cannot be achieved in one area in isolation. Participation of local population is the most important aspect of conservation. The government with vast resources is definitely in a position to help in conservation efforts.

1. Conservation of Natural Heritage

The geographical diversity of India is unmatched. We have Goan beaches, deserts in Rajasthan, mighty Himalayas etc. But the most important feature of our natural heritage is the National parks and wildlife sanctuaries. National heritage is a strong marketing point in tourism. Uni-horn Rhino in Kaziranga, Tiger in Ranthambore and elephants of Periyar are examples. The increasing number of tourists is causing air, noise pollutions and affecting the eco system. The carrying capacities should be worked out by the tourism authorities in consultation with forest authorities and work out the no.of visitors to be allowed per day. This is already in practice at Ranthambore.

Eco-tourism aims at promoting a kind of responsible tourism which is eco-friendly and does not destroy the environmental balance. If we fail to preserve our natural heritage, other areas of our heritage dependent on natural heritage will also be destroyed. Authorities should formulate Do's and Don'ts for tourists, which should be enforced strictly. Visitors need to be educated about carrying capacity of the destination.

The income from entry fee must be invested back for long term measures to preserve the landscape and its constituents. Investment should be make in R & D for proper care of the destination. We can replicate the successful models employed by national parks in USA and Europe after altering them to suit our specific needs.

2. Conservation of Historical Heritage

Historical heritage includes religious monuments, archaeological sites, palaces, houses etc. Laws must be enacted for the conservation of historical monuments. France was the first to enact a law to protect cultural property in 1809. In 1878 Indian Treasure Trove Act was passed. Greece and Egypt passed similar Acts. Ancient monuments preservation act and antiquities act were also passed by India. Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was established in 1861 for the preservation of monuments and archaeological sites. Other states have also enacted laws based on central laws.

World Heritage sites were declared by UNESCO for the protection of sites and monuments which are the concern of mankind. India has 16 cultural sites and 4 natural sites. Main problems in conservation of monuments are
  • Lack of awareness and importance by general public about monuments
  • Lack of infrastructure and man power
  • Defacement by visitors
  • Lack of co-ordination between governmental and non-governmental agencies
Agencies with expertise of preservation are
  • Archaeological Survey of India
  • State departments of archaeology & museum
  • National research laboratory for conservation
The no.of visitors must be limited keeping in mind the condition of the monuments. Visitors must be educated about conservation so that they behave responsibly inside such monuments. Revenue should be invested back for conservation. Large no.of monuments outside the list are defaced by locals with vested interests. Eg: Windows and doors of such houses are pulled out in Rajasthan and Gujarat.

3. Conservation of Artistic and Cultural Heritage

Our artistic and cultural heritage is our USP in international tourism market. While tourists are welcome to observe and understand our celebrations, efforts must be taken to insulate our heritage from getting affected by visitors' lifestyle. Eg: Pushkar Fair in Rajasthan became an area of drug use. Authentic Indian style of paintings and handicrafts have now become more tourist oriented. Their originality is lost.

4. Conservation of Socio-Economic Heritage

In an effort to attract tourists, states are opening up fragile areas like deserts, tribal areas, hills and coastal areas for tourists. AIDS have been reported in Jaisalmer as a result of this opening up policy. The behavioral pattern of young generation in Jaisalmer is similar to that of tourists which is a worrying sign. At Beneshwar tribal fair, due to lack of awareness tourists took photos of bathing tribal women which led to unrest. After this, Rajasthan stopped promoting this event to tourists.

While promoting tourism in sensitive areas, the authorities must consider
  • Carrying capacity
  • Special nature of fairs/festivals
  • Sensibilities of locals
  • Educating visitors about Do's and Don'ts
  • Discourage long stays by tourists
  • Only special interest tourists who are really interested must be allowed
  • Locals must be associated in tourism activities to reap economic benefits
  • Restricted heritage zones and open areas for tourists must be well defined
Such restrictions have really helped in preserving the heritage of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands.

Culture & Heritage - Features & Determinants

Culture And Heritage

Culture denotes values of general human development. There are 3 levels in which the meaning of culture can be understood
  1. The general process of intellectual, spiritual and aesthetic development
  2. A particular way of life, whether of a people, period or a group
  3. The works of intellectual and artistic endeavor expressed through music, literature, art, films etc
Heritage is whatever we inherit from our past. It includes craft traditions, music, other art forms, methods of production, our environment etc. 

Determinants of Culture/Factors Which Influence Culture

1. Culture, Society And History

Culture is the life and mind of a society at any time in history. The culture of a particular society cannot be separated from its historical context. Transformation in cultural traditions is influenced by the social, economic and political developments at any given time and vice versa. For example, the growth and changes in agricultural production was linked with the development and changes within the Vedic civilization in India. The basis of Bhakti movement was the growth of trade and commerce and consequent growth of towns in the 14th and 15th centuries. The expenditure of luxurious architecture of Mughal rule was possible only because of the increased state share in the surplus production.

2. Political Structures

Political decentralization after decline of Gupta and Mughal empire led to the growth of regional cultures. During the periods of centralization of Mughal and modern periods, it helped in the development of a composite tradition resembling a national culture. Religion promoted by a particular ruler influences the art forms. It doesn't mean that other art forms were suppressed. Liberal, democratic and secular rule will promote the growth of non-religious art forms as seen in modern India. Oppressive rule can stimulate cultural expressions of protest as seen during British rule.

3. Outside Influences

No society can exist in isolation. It will always be influenced by societies that comes in contact with it. Eg: Our entire scientific and technological heritage is a shared heritage. Influences through trade contacts, conquest, adoption by native population etc have enriched India's culture. We got agricultural products, new goods and beliefs from Aryans. Turks gave gun powder and new techniques. Persians and Mughals gave new musical forms and instruments.

4. Cultural Awareness And History

Cultural awareness has a connection with history. Our past has several positive and negative things. We need to adopt positive things and discard the negatives like caste system, slavery etc.

Features of Indian Cultural Heritage

1. Assimilation

This is a strong element in Indian culture. It is evident in new cultural forms, food habits, dresses, building styles, marriage customs etc. Now tea and coffee became staple drinks of North and South India. Potato, pineapple and tobacco came from foreign countries and became part of our diet. Melodies from Persia became part of our Hindustani music. The older customs were not destroyed, in fact they were adapted or transformed during later periods. Assimilation has cut across religions, regions, rules and regulations of specific castes. Muslims and Hindus have several customs in common and it is difficult to tell who took what from whom.

2. Unity In Diversity

Common people have the central role in determining the nature of our cultural unity. According to a survey, there are over 4000 communities of different biological tracts, dress, language etc. Nobody is a foreigner in this country and there is no pure Aryan. Genetical and morphological traits within castes vary more than religions. Eg: Tamil Brahmins have little similarity in racial traits with Brahmins in the North. Whereas Brahmins and lower caste people of the same region show similarities. There are few communities which consider themselves as native. Even the invaders became migrants eventually. 71% of migrants in a region is rooted in its ethos. Popular cultural expressions are basically secular. Marking done by different communities are mainly non-religious. Hindus share more than 90% of traits with Muslims, Buddhist, Sikhs. There are 325 languages in India.

3. Patriarchy And Women

There is no equal place for women in our culture. Crimes against women didn't raise any social upset until recent times. Sati, child marriage have their roots in ancient India and is still continuing in certain parts of India. Women and Shudras were denied participation in religious ceremonies and education. They didn't have inheritance rights. Gupta period was harsh on women and it continued until early modern period. The fight for women was an important component of our national movement. Movements against Sati, child marriage and for women's education was the part of social reforms movement of 19th century.

4 Syncretic Tradition

Composite culture has been the hallmark of Indian tradition. Fusion of cultures has constantly taken place giving rise to new cultural forms. Eg: Indo-Islamic architectural styles. Development of Urdu as a medium of literature represents one of the finest expressions of our syncretic tradition. Sufi and Bhakti movements had followers from both religions. Sifi Dargahs at Ajmer is visited by members of all religions. Even the Hindu caste system like castes have become prevalent in other religions as well.

5. Religious Tolerance

Religious tolerance is an important characteristic of our culture. Religious issues were sorted out by debate than violence. The older concept of Aryans destroyed Harappan civilization is not true. There are evidences that they co-existed. Aryans took many features from the Harappan mode of worship. The use of Phallus and Peepal Tree for worship are examples. Jainism and Buddhism were non-violent religions. Buddhism co-existed with Hinduism for thousands of years. Resurgence of Hinduism did have some instances of violence against Buddhists but these were few and far between.

Gupta kings were tolerants of Buddism and Buddhist art forms developed apace. During the early years of Islam and Turkish rule there were some violences, especially by Mahmud of Gazani. But it didn't last long and they settled down. They became extremely tolerant and sensitive to Hindu. Mughals, especially Akbar set new parameters for religious co-existence and cooperation. His Din-i-Ilahi promotes worship of the God without religious differences. British too were tolerant. There were not many forced conversions. In fact after the revolt of 1857, the British restricted even private missionary activities in India. 

6. Cultural Traditions of the Elite and the Masses

Indian culture has been enriched by the contributions of both the elite and the masses. Poetry of Kalidas, Grammar of Panini and verses of Kabir are parts of our cultural heritage. There has been a tendency to ignore their contribution. It is important to remember that Kathakali, Kalari Payattu, folk music of Rajasthan etc are as much creations of beauty and pleasure as cultural expressions of the elite. They also contribute to our national wealth.

Tourism Studies 4 - TS4 Lecture Notes

Historical Evolution of Indian Culture From Harappan to Late Medieval Period

1. The Harappan Period

It was the ancient most civilization of India, contemporary to Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization. It is a 5000 year old civilization with an advanced level of cultural development, when iron was not discovered and bronze was used for making tools. Civilization was mainly urban and occupied areas of India and Pakistan. Mohenjodaro and Harappa were the major cities of the time. A Harappan city was divided into 2 parts. A raised platform for rulers and lower city for common people. Bricks were used for construction whose production was organised on a large scale. Uniform pattern in potteries were also discovered. Art works in Teracotta and sculptures in bronze and stones were found. Figures of bull, pipal tree, ram were found on potteries. They used to worship peepal tree and Phallus (an image of Shiva), which is an important religious symbol in today's India.

2. The Vedic Civilization

It started in 1500 BC - 600 BC, with the coming of Aryans. It was an agricultural civilization. Settled agriculture, cattle breeding, centrality of cow in economy, religious beliefs, use of iron etc came from them. Hinduism originated and took shape. The Vedic hymns of that time are even used today in Hindu rituals. Sacredness of fire, worship of gods associated with natural phenomena, animal sacrifice etc came from them. Vedas, Upanishads, Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit were the contributions to languages and literature.

3. The Buddhist Epoch

Buddhism emerged from the opposition to the domination of the society by Brahmins. The reasons for the opposition were
  • Vedic rituals became complex and expensive for social groups
  • Brahmins as the executors of rituals became dominant even over the powerful Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Brahmins created a 4 tier hierarchical system called Varnashram and claimed the highest position for themselves
  • Caste system stopped social mobility and rising economic power of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas led to the rise of new religions
Mahavir and Gautam Buddha were the two great religious leaders of this period. Jainism was followed by Vaishyas whereas Buddhism had followers from all communities. Buddhism became widespread all over Asia. Jainism and Buddhism was against Varnashram and they were open to members of all castes and groups in the society. They also gave an equal status to women. Instead of rituals, they put emphasis on Karma for salvation. Non-violence, humanism and stress on moral life was the hallmark. Instead of Sanskrit, stress was given for popular languages used by people. Texts were written in  these languages and everyone could read them. This led to the development of Varnacular literature.

Temples of Jhandial, Nagari represent architectural styles. Buddhist Stupas are found in Bodh Gaya and various other places. Cave architecture flourished. Mathura, Gandhara and Amaravathi schools of art produced figures of great beauty. During this period, South India witnessed the rise of Satavahanas, in 1st Century BC.

4. The Gupta Period

Emergence of Gupta in 4th Century AD led to the rise of an all India empire. It peaked during the reign of Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta II. The empire declined by the era of Skanda Gupta and Harsha in the beginning of 7th Century AD. Ramayana and Mahabharata were collected during this period. Resurgence of Hinduism took place. Codification of Hindu social and family laws were done by Manu, Narada and Brihaspati. Caste system, joint family system and subordinate position of women were formalised during this period. 

Hinduism shifted from sacrifices to idol worship. Trinity of Brahma-Vishnu-Maheshwara became established. Division between Vaishnavism and Shaivism occured. There were tremendous developments in the field of astronomy, astrology and mathematics. Aryabhatta and Varahamihira were some great astronomers of the period. Kalidas composed his great poetic  and dramatic works during this period.

5. Early Medieval Period

This period saw the decline of Buddhism and rise of Hinduism. Shankara developed the philosophy of Advaita. He traveled extensively and established 4 Mathas in Badrinath in North, Shringeri in South, Puri in East and Dwaraka in West. Bhakti movement which opposed Advaita emerged at the same time of Shankara. Nayanars and Alvars were the first Bhakti saints. Bhakti movement became popular. Hymns were composed in the honour of Vishnu, Shiva and later Krishna. With Kabir Das, Bhakti movement broke caste and religious boundaries.

Ramacharitamanas by Tulasidas tried to synthesize the existing trends of the Bhakti movement and poetry. Bhakti movement gave rise to regional literal movement in Tamil, Kannada, Marathi etc. During this period India came in touch with the Arabs. Quran was translated to Sindhi and Sanskrit works on science was translated to Arabic. After the defeat of Prithviraj by Mohammed of Ghur, Turkish rule was established in India. Delhi Sultanate under Qutubddin Aibak and Iltumish were established. Turks slowly settled in India.

Sufism came to India during this period. Sufism opposed Islamic orthodoxy. Sufism and Bhakti movements influenced each other. During 10th and 13th centuries, temple building reached its prime. Eg: Khajuraho, Puri, Konark etc. Indo-Islamic style of architecture also emerged. Eg: Jamet Khana Masjid at Nizamuddin. Music also evolved into various forms.

6. Late Medieval Period

Entry of Mughals influence and enriched Indian culture. Mughals created a centralised government. New styles of architecture, painting, literature and music were introduced. Translation of important texts were the major literary activity. Regional languages like Bangali, Oriya, Urdu etc were born. Sikkism emerged under the teaching of Guru Nanak. He opposed ritualism and believed in universal brotherhood. 10 Gurus were recognised by Sikkism and the last was Guru Gobind Singh.

Influence of different architectural styles dominated temples, mosques and forts and palaces. Painting was well developed. Eg: Ajanta and Ellora caves. 3D painting was exercised by the Mughals in their palaces. Hindustani music is a fusion of Persian and folk forms of music was also used. New instruments like Sitar and Sarod were invented.

Politics Of Environment

1. Global Context

Two developments crucial in politics of environment 
  1. Accelerated technological development sans environmental protection measures all over the world, particularly in developed countries
  2. Population explosion in developing countries
Both contributed to the depletion of natural resources and environmental degradation. Depletion is happening at such a high pace that their renewal is not possible in the natural cycle. Exploiting natural resources industrially led to environmental disasters. This led to the formation of global environment movement, which is the basis of environment. There has been 2 phases of environmental concern and politics

a) First phase in 1970s, was more localized in nature. Initiatives were taken by developed countries, especially USA. Only local importance was highlighted and didn't have a global impact.

b) Second phase was more successful and it integrated local issues with the global context. The universality of environmental issues were emphasized. Eg: Leaders of 30 environment groups visited American President in November 1988 for his consideration in environmental issues. Unlike the first phase of the 70s, the second phase in the 80s were more universal in its perspective.

Debate

3 debates are there
  1. The environmental concern is the conspiracy of developed countries trying to prevent the 3rd world countries from developing their economies by raising environmental issues. Developing countries argue that the question of environment should be taken up only after the developing countries have achieved the same level of developed countries.
  2. It dismisses all talk of environment as a luxury of the rich, wherever they are. The preservation of environment is a privilege of rich and societies which have nothing more than a touristic interest in the environment. The problems of the poor are more important than environment. The environmental issues should not stand in the way of developing countries trying to solve the basic problems of hunger and employment.
  3. Third debate comes from developed countries. The ever growing population in poor countries are responsible for environmental crisis. Developed countries have already addressed the environmental issues by application of advanced pollution control technology. It is the 3rd world countries who cause the issues.
 Interpretation

First debate is true to some extent as it is evident from the days of colonization. The western countries depleted the natural resources of colonies for their own advancement. Heavy food needs of developed countries deprived food in third world countries. The use of ex-colonies for dumping nuclear waste is another example. However it is true that the population explosion in some third world countries have also contributed to environmental degradation.

2. Indian Context

The industrialists and governments to some extent argues that environmental degradation is a price worth paying for economic development. Environmentalists argue that the protection of environment is absolutely important. Environmentalists like Baba Amte, Medha Patkar have been associated with various organizations and fought for preventing deforestation, promoting afforestation preventing construction of big dams, water pollution etc.

Developmentalists supported the construction of dams by citing the success of Bhakra Nangal Dam in satarting green revolution in Punjab. Environmentalists point out the negative effects of green revolution in terms of depletion of fodder, use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides which deteriorate human health. Chipko and Apikko movements in UP and Karnataka helped prevention of cutting of trees.

Dams

The most important debate was in the construction of dams. Developmentalists argued that dams helped in widespread irrigation and generation of electricity. Environmentalists argued that
  • Claims were exaggerated
  • Outsiders were benefited not the local communities who are affected by dam construction
  • Only few dams were designed for flood control
  • Big dams had the risks of siltation and degradation of soil
  • Destruction of local ecosystem
  • Earthquake possibilities
  • Rivers died
  • Inadequate compensation for relocation

Problems Arising Out Of Unplanned Or Badly Planned Tourism

Some of the problems are
  • Deforestation
  • Privileging of one species and loss of species diversity
  • Loss of natural resources for firewood and timber
  • Soil erosion and coastal erosion
  • Land degradation, water pollution and garbage
  • Impact of construction of roads and settlements and changes in land use
  • Migration of the small and poor peasant population and influx of outside agencies
  • Urbanisation and the attendant problem of providing water, electricity, infrastructure etc
  • Development of shanties and slums
  • Problems of social cohesion in the poorest and remotest regions of the country
 While creating protected areas and buffer zones, the local community is ousted and relocated outside, changing its traditional occupational structure. By the opening of sanctuaries in an unplanned manner, inhabitants lost their right to forest produce and their habitat. There is a concentration tendency in tourism which was not the case with local communities. Hotels and shops get concentrated in tourist visited areas.

Mountain communities are concerned with waste disposal and growing need for firewood and fuel. Trekkers and mountaineers carry lots of supplies but they won't carry away the empty packaging. Litter has become a major issue.

Problems

Unique areas and species needs protection, the money for this can be sourced through industrial and commercial users including tourists. The access to such areas must be limited, not only in time but also spatially. Zoning needs to be done. Traditional communities are to be relocated outside the buffer zone. The consequences are many due to this. For eg: In Gir, Gujarat, local community of cattle owners were relocated at farm lands, an activity which they knew nothing about. Within a couple of years, they were moved to city slums to sell their labour.

In Ranthambor, the reserve suffered degradation because the resident community was not there to regulate the regeneration cycle. The governments have not been able to develop an eco-tourism concept which integrated the knowledge of the resident community into consideration. Displaced communities have very marginal benefits from eco tourism. Conservationists feel that this is the cost they pay for the protection of species.

The unresolved issues are
  • How many visitors to be allowed at one time?
  • How to use control mechanisms like hours of daylight, opening hours, raining and flood seasons, noise of vehicle disturbance etc.
  • Ability to implement control mechanisms
  • The need for the protection of natural beauty and cultural identity
In Kenya, the issues were solved by associating the Masai, local tribesmen in the management of sanctuaries. They were given 19% of gate revenue and rest of the money was used by County Council for infrastructure development. The result was a tourism explosion.

Circuits Or Destinations Identified For Concentrated Tourism Development In India

15 circuits/destinations have been identified

  1. Kulu-Manali-Leh
  2. Gwalior-Shivpuri-Orcha-Khajuraho
  3. Bagdogra-Sikkim-Darjeeling-Kalimpong
  4. Bhubaneshwar-Puri-Konark
  5. Hyderabad-Nagarjunasagar-Tirupathi
  6. Madras-Masmallapuram-Pondicherry
  7. Rishikesh-Gangotri-Badrinath
  8. Indore-Ujjain-Mandu
  9. Jaisalmer-Jodhpur-Bikaner-Barmer
  10. Lakshadweep Islands
  11. Andaman Islands
  12. Manali
  13. Bekal Beach
  14. Muttukadu Beach
  15. Kangra
Facilities and infrastructure are to be developed in these circuits with central assistance and investment by State/Private resources.

Important Measures For Balanced Tourism Development

For an overall tourism growth, different regions of a country needs to be developed equally. Some of the measures need to be taken are

Regions with tourism potential but lacking in agricultural and industrial resources must be selected first and then economic benefits of tourism development in such areas to be evaluated. On the basis of these evaluations, priorities and steps for these undeveloped areas in the tourism master plan may be fixed. 

It is not necessary to take the most backward area first, for intensive development. Selection should be based on development potential. Potential can be determined in terms of infrastructural facilities and location of tourist attractions.

Planning should be made in such a way that there is less difference in facilities available for locals and visitors. Eg: Good drinking water should be accessible to both locals and tourists, not just for tourist only.

Tourism planning should not be left to private enterprises in search of profit. Government must actively participate in it. Importance should be given to the maintenance and cultural basis of life of local people including the preservation and best use of a region's natural resources. Regional tourist boards must co-ordinate all tourist activities. They should also maintain relations with other boards in the area involved in tourism.
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