Tourism An Instrument In Protecting Historical Sites

Tourism helped preservation of historical sites for their broader economic usefulness. Famous monuments form the backbone of local economy and hence authorities are forced to protect them fearing the loss of source of revenue and employment. Locals who reap economic benefits of tourism, also work for the preservation. Preservation of historical sites require expensive technologies, so their conservation is not the top priority of governments.

Money earned from tourists is the most important source of finance for the conservation of historical sites. Pyramids of Egypt is preserved by the best preserving techniques due to the money provided by tourism. Same is the case of archaeological complexes of Greco-Roman world and ancient sites of America which are extremely well preserved almost entirely due to their attractiveness to tourists.

In India too, several historical sites are protected for their tourism potential and by the money provided by tourists. Taj Mahal, one of the best preserved monuments in the world has been so well preserved for its 'attractiveness' to the world tourists and the money earned from them. Khajuraho, a neglected sleepy village with ancient monuments became a 'World Heritage Site' due to tourism which promoted the place to international tourists.

Heritage resort concept in which old and ruined havelis and mahals were converted to resorts and hotels, is another example of tourism being a 'tool for conservation'.

Squeaking Sound From Yamaha R15 Brakes - Solved

If you hear any squeaking sound from any of the brakes of Yamaha R15, don't panic yet. Normally the sound is heard when you are applying brakes on a steep descend. At times the sound is also heard while you move the bike in the morning. There is nothing to worry about this. It is pretty normal. The squeaking sound in most cases will be made by dust entering the brake system. This is found more so in the case of back brakes of R15. 

You don't need to visit the service centre to fix this. Give a thorough wash to the brake area with water from a hose at a reasonable force. Apply water all over the brake area. It would be better to apply some car shampoo in the area. The sudden forceful gush of water removes the dust that is making the sound. Allow the area to dry completely. Let it stay dry there for at least 2 hours. Now do a test run and see whether the issue is still there. If the issue persists, you may have to visit the service centre and ask them to dismantle the brake and check for any malfunctioning.

Multiplier Effect

Q) Define multiplier effect. Discuss its role in local economy?
Q) What are the direct and indirect economic benefits of tourism? Explain with illustrations?

In tourism, multiplier effect is the way in which total spending done by the tourist filters through the economy and stimulates other sectors as well. Multiplier effect includes the direct and secondary effects of tourist expenditures on the economy. Multiplier effect refers to the number of rounds of spending with the local economy, thus indicating the impact on local income, employment and other economic sectors, graphically.

Multiplier effect is divided into 3 categories

a) Sales and Output Multipliers

It measures total sales on output stimulated by an initial expenditure as a ratio. The greater the multiplier, the greater is the benefit to the local economy. 

Eg: A tourist spends Rs.100 at a hotel. Out of the Rs.100, Rs.50 is spend by the waiter for buying his dress in the second round. The shop owner spends Rs.25 on weekly groceries in the third round. Then the total spending is Rs.175 against the Rs.100 originally spent by the tourist. Thus the multiplier effect is 1.75.

b) Income Multiplier

It measures the relation between tourist spending and subsequent changes in income in the following way

K = A x 1/ (1-BC)

A- % of tourist spending after leakage

B- % of income spent by residents on local goods and services

C- % expenditure of resident accessing a local income after leakages

c) Employment Multiplier

The ratio of direct and secondary employment generated by additional tourism expenditure to direct employment alone. 

Suppose 100 new jobs in tourist industry gave rise to 20 more jobs, then the multiplier would be 120/100 = 1.2

The comprehensive formula to calculate multiplier effect is TIM = 1-TPI / (MPS + MPI)

TIM - Tourism Income Multiplier
1 - Tourist expenditure
TPI - Tourist's propensity to import
MPS - Marginal propensity to save
MPI - Marginal propensity to import

The size of multiplier in tourism depends on how well developed the supplying sectors are and how closely linked they are to tourism. Tourism's primary activities involve purchase of goods and services mostly from the local economy, the multiplier will be higher than it would be, if many imported goods and services are used. 

Multiplier is higher for tourism than manufacturing. As tourism largely involves small businesses, tourist spending filters rapidly and more widely through the society. Multiplier for small island economies is less than 1. It is greater than 2 for highly integrated economies.

1. Positive Economic Benefits

Direct economic benefits include employment, income, foreign exchange which improved the living standards of the local community and overall national and regional economic development. In economically depressed areas, the employment and income provided by tourism may stop out migration. 

Increased government revenue from various taxation on tourism can be used for general economic benefit like infrastructural development. Indirect economic benefit is that it acts as a catalyst for development in other economic sectors such as agriculture, fisheries, construction, manufacture of handicrafts etc.

Another indirect benefit is the improvement in transportation and other infrastructural facilities and services for tourism which also serve as general national, regional and community needs. Tourism will impart training and managerial skills for its population and encourage people to adopt regular employment habits. Tourism also contributes in upliftment of women through training and employment. 

2. Negative Economic Impacts

Investments in tourism is large and locals have little participation. Economic distortion can take place geographically if tourism is concentrated in only one area of a country or region without corresponding development in other places. Inflation is another problem. Foreigners buy goods at high costs regularly and the prices get stabilized resulting in inflation. Productivity index of tourism industry is reduced during the off season, particularly to the investors and in general to the national economy. Eg: If there is no occupant in a hotel room for a day, it perishes.

Significance Of Planning For Tourism And Its Impact On Economy

More emphasis is given by national and state governments for tourism planning. Planning is done to ensure a balance between tourism promotion and the concerns for safeguarding the physical, social and cultural environment of the destination areas. Tourism promotion has been identified as the main factor in increasing the GNP, particularly of developing countries. Planning is aimed at creating a balance between tourism activities and the local environment. More so in the case of developing countries.

In developing countries, the impact is the strongest because they must develop an infrastructure that preserves the existing unique characteristics and also promote all-round socio-economic development. At the same time they should also preserve and enhance their physical environment in order to promote tourism. Tourism development is bound to have socio-economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts on the habitat. So there needs a systematic evaluation and analysis using scientific techniques before the development decisions are taken. These are more important in environmentally sensitive areas like hills or mountains.

Any programme for tourism development this have the underlying objective of promoting positive impacts and mitigating the negative impacts on the social, economic and physical environment of the destination areas.

Responsible Tourism

It is a kind of tourism which while safeguarding the experience of travel, would also further mutual understanding between people, prevent environmental and cultural degradation, exploitation and dehumanization of the local population. Responsible tourism is against the 'experience seeking' and counter-cultural tourists who may have a negative impact on hosts.

With the help of responsible tourism, we can overcome the issues raised by tourism industry. Responsible tourism is more caring and aware form of tourism. In responsible tourism, the host community plays a very crucial role in decision-making on tourism and tourism development. They also control the pace of development. Raising the awareness of the traveler prior to the arrival of the destination and sensitizing him to the local environment is very important. Hence education plays a key role in responsible tourism.

There are two ideological per-occupations in responsible tourism
  • Counter cultural rejection of mass consumerism
  • A concern for the impact of the modern industrial development on the 3rd world societies
1. Counter Cultural Responsible Tourism

It criticizes the practices of conventional mass tourism. The image of counter cultural alternative tourist is that one would not go for mere recreation. He is an adventurer who seeks the strangeness of the world of others and tries to experience the authentic life. He travels by himself or with small groups in an unhurried manner, spontaneously changing travel plans.

The ideal traveler is self reliant and enterprising, accepting the hospitality of humble peasants and tribal people, eating their food and drinking their water, without concern for comfort or health. He also participates in conservation efforts and contributes in environmental protection.

2. Concerned Responsible Tourism

It is a 'just' form of travel between members of different communities. It seeks to achieve mutual understanding, solidarity and equality among participants. It is an alternative to both mass and 'rucksack' tourism. Both parties should equally benefit, personally and economically from the encounter. Small-scale projects in developing countries are the principle means of promotion of this type of tourism.

Locals share their real life experiences and problems in an unadulterated way. The visitors are understood to pay for their stay and no exploitation is involved.

Tourism, Economic Benefits And Environmental Impact

Q) "The tourism industry be structured to maximize the economic benefits, while reducing social and environmental impact"? Explain the statement?

Sustainability of tourism development will depend on the successful protection of the destinations' natural resources and environment. According to joint declaration of WTO & UNEP,

"The protection enhancement and improvement of the various components of man's environment are fundamental conditions for the harmonious development of tourism. Similarly, national management of tourism may contribute to a large extent to protecting and developing the physical environment and the cultural heritage as well as improving the quality of life".

Nowadays, tourism is the most important social and economic activity. There has been adverse socio-economic impacts. Responsibilities must be taken by tourist receiving countries and tourists jointly. According to the Tourism Bill of Rights and Tourist code laid down by WTO
  • Touristic environment must be protected for present and future generations
  • Host population in place of transit and stay are entitled to free access to their own tourism resources
  • Hosts are also entitled to expect respect and understanding of their customs, religions and other parts of their cultures. Fragile environments must be given the most rigid protection measures.
  • To facilitate such understanding and respect, appropriate information must be given to tourists on
 The customs, local taboos, sacred sites of host communities, their artistic, archaeological and cultural treasures must be preserved. Wildlife and other natural resources must be protected. Tourists must have friendly relations with hosts.

Role Of Tourism In Development & Conservation Of Resources

Q) Analyze critically the relationship between conservation requirements and development?

Conservation refers to the planned management of specific sites and places and natural resources in general. It doesn't mean that no change will be applied to the site. Sometimes it includes restoration of the site or monument to its original condition. Conservation implies that some use and controlled change can take place, if the basic integrity of the site or resource is maintained. Protection, enhancement and improvement of man's environment is fundamental for tourism development. Orderly management of tourism can also protect and develop the physical environment and thereby improve the quality of life.

1. Climate

A warm, sunny, dry climate is desirable for tourists from cold areas. Seasonal festivals and physical attractions add to the value. Conservation of desirable climate through control of air pollution or retaining the architectural styles suitable to the climate is essential for tourism. Climate seasonality must be considered as a factor in promoting climate as an attraction. A long climatically desirable season is an advantage for tourism development as the investment made in facilities and infrastructure can be maximized. Eg: Monsoon tourism in Kerala.

2. Scenic Beauty

Scenic beauty of an area is a major motivation especially if conservation measures are taken to maintain the cleanliness and natural character of the environment.

3. Beaches and Marine Areas

Beaches for sunbathing, swimming, surfing, fishing etc are major attractions in many places. Beaches and marine areas should be conserved in the form of banks, reserves and development controls.

4. Flora and Fauna

Unusual and interesting flora and fauna can be important attractions. Eg: Game parks of East Africa. Adequate conservation measures are thus an absolute necessity for tourism promotion. The attraction features of a country or region provide the basis for developing tourism. It forms the essential element of the tourism product. Development of tourism can also be used to accomplish environmental and cultural conservation and maintain the area's unique sense of place. 

However, there are certain types of casino type tourism much different from the character of local population is justified because of profitability. It should only be employed if the country believes it is imperative for its own cultural and environmental conservation. In the long run, casino type tourism has proved to be disruptive, so it should never be a top priority as excessive exploitation of natural attraction will destroy the natural beauty and will reduce the profit in the long run.

Wildlife conservation is a major issue in most countries. As wildlife constitutes an attraction feature for tourism, it should be used as a rationale for wildlife conservation.

Environmental Question In Indian Philosophical Traditions

Q) Indian philosophical explanation considers nature as a composition of 5 elements, comment on it?

Environment in Indian thought is considered as a living mechanism where humans are on of the many living creatures. Ancient Indian philosophers argued that man being an intelligent creature should consider protection of environment as one of the fundamental duties. Oral traditions are focused on practice, whereas Indian textual tradition offers a complete and systematic analysis of the universe.

According to textual tradition, man is made up of elements which at death disintegrate and dissolve into nature. There are 9 Tatvas or elements. Earth, water, fire, air, sky, time, directions, mind and soil. Indian thought explains there is life in all kinds of things. It might be biotic or abiotic material. There was emphasis on mutual dependence and living in isolation was not possible.

Environment In Oral Traditions

In Oral tradition, environment has been perceived as a living being which breathes, feels, protects etc. Components of environment have been given special position which means a kind of consideration was kept in mind for environmental forces. Animals and plants were basic components of tales in oral tradition. It was always kept in mind that human survival was possible only with the conservation of flora and fauna. They were even worshiped to ensure their survival. Man was not in the possession of knowledge instead it came from birds and animals. Cosmic intelligence is the self existent source of all knowledge. Ancient Indians believed that the world was divided into two halves. The sky and earth. There also existed a world beyond the sky and another below earth.

Environment In Philosophical Treatises (Textual Tradition)

Indian textual tradition considered even the abiotic world as a living creature with a soul. It placed man as equal to every other element in our environment. Rituals ensured that we treated even abiotic world with great care. Eg: Earth is considered as mother goddess. Living things other than man have also been given due importance. Eg: Worship of Pashupati Mahadev. The tales of Panchatantra also denotes the importance given to living world. Animals and plants in the tales are given human characteristics to give lessons to manking.

Environment And Classical Arts

According to Indian philosophy, every creative act comes from direct contact with Prakriti. Art is based on visual and audio perceptions of objects in nature. The dance of Shiva is a perfect icon of ecology 
  • Emblems - Agni & Deer
  • Locks (Hair) - Forest
  • Hair hides - Sun & Moon
  • Neck - Snakes as garlands
  • Wears Tiger skin
  • Energy - Shakti who is the daughter of Himalayas

What Is Eco Tourism And Explain The Impact Of Such Tourism Development

Eco tourism is tourism directed towards natural environments, intended to support conservation efforts and observe wildlife. Eco tourism is concerned with the direct enjoyment of some relatively undisturbed phenomenon of nature. Eco tourism is a big business, it provides valuable foreign exchange for the preservation of natural systems and wildlife. But eco tourism threatens to destroy the resources on which it depends. Eg: Tour boats dump garbage in waters of Antartica.

Impact Of Eco Tourism

1. Water

Release of garbage, sewage into lakes and rivers which leads to health hazards, destruction of aquatic plants and animal life. Release of oil from cruise ships, boats lead to increased toxicity in water bodies and contaminates sea food.

2. Atmosphere

Increase in travel (ship, plane, car, train) leads to air and noise pollution, loss of recreation value of destinations.

3. Vegetation

Cutting trees for resort construction, irresponsible use of fire in forests, traffic in forests, collection of plants and fungi from forests lead to loss of forest wealth and plant life.

4. Human Settlements

Construction and expansion of hotels, shops etc leads to displacement of people, traffic congestion and increased population.

5. Monuments

Use of monuments for recreational purposes, excessive usage for sightseeing etc leads to overcrowding, disfiguring, loss of preservation etc.

Indian Philosophical Views On Environment

Indian theory of nature and ecology is influenced by the theory of creation. Every element, object and living being in the universe is created by the same supreme being; and the man has no special dominion over nature. Hindu religion ensured respect for nature in 3 basic elements
  • Faith in God
  • Non-dualistic view of Purush
  • Prakriti 
  • A set of rules for duties and worship
Vedas, Upanishads and Puranas have detailed description of trees, plants and wildlife along with their importance to the community. Significance of trees is described in Varah Puran, which says planting trees will lead to heaven. In Matsyapurana and Padmapurana, there is a description of plantation ceremony, Vriksha Mahotsava. In Matsyapurana plantation of tree is equal to ten sons. 

Trees and plants are used in worship and rituals. It was assumed that particular Gods abode in them. In Narasimha Puran, tree has been considered as Brahma itself. Atharvaveda considers Peepal tree as abode of various Gods. There has been prohibition and punishments for cutting trees. 

Indian society was aware that indiscriminate destruction of plants and forests would result in diseases and pollution of atmosphere. Indians' relationship with nature and animals were of mutual respect and kindness. Eg: Worship of Cow. Yajurveda offers prayers to all animals. Co-existence of several animals in Rishis' Ashrams is another example.

Ancient Indian societies provided moral guidelines towards environmental preservation and conservation. These were not only practiced by common man, but also by rulers and kings. Every environmental issue was given proper solution.
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