Q) Analyze critically the relationship between conservation requirements and development?
Conservation refers to the planned management of specific sites and places and natural resources in general. It doesn't mean that no change will be applied to the site. Sometimes it includes restoration of the site or monument to its original condition. Conservation implies that some use and controlled change can take place, if the basic integrity of the site or resource is maintained. Protection, enhancement and improvement of man's environment is fundamental for tourism development. Orderly management of tourism can also protect and develop the physical environment and thereby improve the quality of life.
A warm, sunny, dry climate is desirable for tourists from cold areas. Seasonal festivals and physical attractions add to the value. Conservation of desirable climate through control of air pollution or retaining the architectural styles suitable to the climate is essential for tourism. Climate seasonality must be considered as a factor in promoting climate as an attraction. A long climatically desirable season is an advantage for tourism development as the investment made in facilities and infrastructure can be maximized. Eg: Monsoon tourism in Kerala.
2. Scenic Beauty
Scenic beauty of an area is a major motivation especially if conservation measures are taken to maintain the cleanliness and natural character of the environment.
3. Beaches and Marine Areas
Beaches for sunbathing, swimming, surfing, fishing etc are major attractions in many places. Beaches and marine areas should be conserved in the form of banks, reserves and development controls.
4. Flora and Fauna
Unusual and interesting flora and fauna can be important attractions. Eg: Game parks of East Africa. Adequate conservation measures are thus an absolute necessity for tourism promotion. The attraction features of a country or region provide the basis for developing tourism. It forms the essential element of the tourism product. Development of tourism can also be used to accomplish environmental and cultural conservation and maintain the area's unique sense of place.
However, there are certain types of casino type tourism much different from the character of local population is justified because of profitability. It should only be employed if the country believes it is imperative for its own cultural and environmental conservation. In the long run, casino type tourism has proved to be disruptive, so it should never be a top priority as excessive exploitation of natural attraction will destroy the natural beauty and will reduce the profit in the long run.
Wildlife conservation is a major issue in most countries. As wildlife constitutes an attraction feature for tourism, it should be used as a rationale for wildlife conservation.