Environmental Reform Initiatives In India

The United Nations Conference On Human Environment convened at Stockholm in 1972 laid down the basics of environmental reform to be followed by countries.

  • Man has the fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life in an environment of quality that permits a life of dignity and well being
  • Man bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations
UN General Assembly of 1972 designated June 5 as the World Environment Day. Provisions regarding protection of environment were incorporated into the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act passed in 1976. Article 48-A states " The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country". This is a chapter on directive principles of state policy. 

Article 51-A says " It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures". It is a fundamental duty. Wildlife Protection Act was followed by Water Forest Act. There is no lack of legislature, but there is lack of interest in the employment of these rules. Fortunately, Indian judiciary has stepped in at the right time most often than not.

Meaning Of Environment

Definition by Rachel Carson : The history of life on earth has been a history of interaction between living things and their surroundings.

Environment simply means the surroundings comprising the living and the non-living and the study of interactions between these two is the science of ecology. According to Aldoux Huxley, study of ecology is essential because, "It is only by means of the sciences of life that the quality of life can be radically changed".

Define Digital Divide

ICT has divided the world into two parts. One of those who possess the wealth and can afford ICT gadgets and services and others who don't have the wealth to afford them. Rich countries and rich people in poor countries can afford ICT services and be able to survive in the technological era. Those who cannot afford will lag behind in development. The rich become richer and poor become poorer. This will have implications on individuals, families, societies and even nations. ICT may have created two class of people. One living in information poverty and the new cadre of high technology entrepreneurs. India has the widest digital divide in the world.

ICT In Uplifting Marginalized Section Of Our Society

ICT initiatives are bringing global communities closer. E-governance is a very good example of ICT reaching normal people. A lot of information can be stored in one place and can be searched within seconds. Eg: Fingerprint Database.

1. ICT As A Knowledge Provider

ICT has become a boon to poor nations as identical information can be accessed within seconds. Even the best library in the world cannot have all the books. Now information is there to be taken. Before, only the rich could get access to the latest information, not anymore. Initially all the information on the internet was free, now paid information is also there. Major part of such payments go to companies in the developed world. 

2. ICT As An Employment Provider

ICT has made employees from one part of the world to work for the employers in another part of the world. Eg: Call centres.

3. ICT As An Education Provider

Online courses are now available. Information is put on the website and students study them on their own and appear for the exams, sometimes online. Once the course is finished, certificates will be sent to you by regular mail. ICT can improve the quality of education, if the institutions from two different countries collaborate and use ICT to provide education.

Via online courses, you will get the latest information. Making changes to printed books will take time and a lot of resources. ICT facilitates frequent updation of content. ICT will help institutions grow and strengthen by making things more transparent and developing a sense of competition with outside world. Other than becoming a degree churning institute.

Traditional campus based courses require a lot of time, whereas ICT based courses' duration could be a few hours to few years. This provides flexibility and is a boon for working professionals who want to pursue their studies. India government has pursued IT Act in 2000 and efforts are being made to extend ICT to rural areas. Internet centres are opened, ICT is applied to agriculture, health, education and so on.

Education And Values

There is a general degeneration of values in the modern society. Education can develop values. If values are teached during childhood, it would be difficult for such individuals to lose them completely when they become adults. According to NPE (1986), in our culturally plural society, education should foster universal and eternal values oriented towards unity and integration of people. According to Dr. Radhakrishnan, education has to give the educated a proper sense of values. According to Swami Vivekananda, education should develop the character and increase the strength of mind.

Health Security

Health security means, having low exposure to disease and high and proper access to health services. For health security, preventive strategies are very important and are closely related to provision of basic services of water supply, sanitation and education. The actions of non-governmental organisations are as important as the government in promoting health security.

Food Security

Food security emerged as a concept in the 1970s, in the discussion of international food problems when the world faced a global food crisis. The initial focus was on food supply, availability and price stability of food items at national and international level. Modification of definition of food security was done taking into account a variety of factors. One of them was that the technical success of Green Revolution did not automatically lead to rapid and dramatic reductions in poverty and malnutrition. These problems were recognised as the result of lack of effective demand by the poor.

There were many definitions of food security put forward by various organisations over time. The latest definition was by the State of Food Insecurity 2001. 

"Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life".

Food security is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. National and international efforts are needed to meet and ensure food security, especially in the area of globalisation and liberalisation. Attention has to be given for long term solutions.

Factors To Be Considered While Conducting A City Tour

Undertaking The Tour

1. Length of Daily Trip

Avoid long days back to back. Age group will determine the endurance of passengers. The amount of driving in the previous day, weather, general health and morale of the group are also some factors. You should schedule shorter days with enough free time. Make sure that the driver obeys traffic rules and does not do over time.

2. Stops During the Tour

Rest and meal stops must be planned in advance. Sufficient time should be allowed especially if toilet facilities are limited. This means, at least 20 minutes will be required. The departure time must be announced. Shopping should be discouraged during short stops. Photography stops should be kept to minimum. Let them take photos when relevant scenic spots are there. Don't let them wander off. Plan and inform the hotel unless you are a small group. Avoid remote places and unplanned lunch. Allot at least an hour for lunch. Those who finish early can go for shopping.

3. Shopping

Sufficient time should be given for shopping. Some tourists travel for shopping, you shouldn't disappoint them. Know the days and hours when shops are open. Shops close on afternoon, you should check this while preparing the itinerary. Warn tourists about rip-offs and about local currency dealings. You should be able to 
  • Spot fake items
  • Know items that will be confiscated in customs
  • Idea about the cost of goods
4. Problem Spots

Some things are out of your control. Think about the difficulties and plan how to deal with them. Keep a list of local contacts in every region you visit. Be cool and keep a calm demeanor. Some of the common problems are

a) Luggage

People tend to grab the wrong bag or misplace them. Ask them to leave jewellery and expensive items at home. Allow sufficient time for bags to make it to the hotel. Make them mark their bags.

b) Missing Tour Members

If someone does not show up, remember that your first responsibility is to the tour as a whole. You can depart without the missing person unless you have his passport or tickets or if he is old or have no idea where he or she is. Search the possible areas and notify the police. 

c) Loss of Passport

Do not leave passports at hotel rooms. Contact the nearest embassy. Tour escorts should carry a list of tour members' passport numbers plus date and place of issue. 

d) Loss of Funds and Tickets

It is the responsibility of the individual. Advice them to carry very little cash. If tickets are lost, inform the carrier to arrange for substitute tickets.

e) Illness

Travelers are expected to provide for their own medical needs. You may carry aspirin, cough drops etc. A knowledge of first aid including artificial respiration is a handy skill. 

Facebook Access Restricted (Bad IP) - Solved

"Access Restricted (Bad IP)" facebook message might be the reason why you are on this page. What this means is that, facebook has detected that your IP address is involved in abusive or other kind of illegal activity. This can happen if you are using proxy through your internet connection. The worst part is that, if you are seeing this on a Wi-Fi network, all other users of the Wi-Fi network will also be blocked from using facebook.


The only solution to remove the IP address block is to ask facebook through their form to remove the block or at least get some communication from their part. Another solution is to use IP masking apps, which is not advisable.

What If You Haven't Done Anything Wrong ?

Access Restricted (Bad IP)

Sometimes "Access Restricted (Bad IP) message comes as an error. This happens with internet service providers using dynamic IPs. Majority of internet service providers use dynamic IP (you will have to pay extra rent for static IPs). Sometimes the IP address generated by the ISP might be similar to those reported IP addresses which facebook has already blocked. In such cases, your IP address will also be blocked even though you haven't done anything wrong. If that is the case, then you don't need to worry too much. You just need to switch off your modem or mobile data for some time and switch it back on. Now your ISP will assign you a new IP which will work okay with Facebook.

I use BSNL broadband connection and I had this Bad IP problem once. I wasn't able to browse facebook through my WI-Fi connection, while I was able to browse it on my mobile data. I restarted my modem after 10 min and error message still persisted, which may be because BSNL again gave me a similar IP address which is in the range of those previously reported IPs. In such cases, you will have to wait a little bit longer. Mine was fixed only the next morning, when the problem first appeared at 9PM. In rare cases, the issue might not get solved by the morning, then you will have to call your ISP and let them know about this issue. They will fix it for you.
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