"The Type Of Tourism Promoted By A Destination Determines The Nature Of Its Guest-host Relationship". Justify

1. Ethnic Tourism

Ethnic tourism focuses not only on monuments and archaeology but also on quaint customs of exotic people like Eskimos, American Indians, tribal communities, their rituals and ceremonies, their activities etc. These tourists target 'off beaten path'. This type of travel is normally done by elite tourists and comes at high costs. It involves intimate contact between guests and hosts. Intimate contact changes local people's lives. Tourist gaze changes everything. For eg: Monastry festivals in Ladakh is now held in summer instead of winter which is an off season. Beneficiaries are the tourists not the locals who pay for the festival.

2. Cultural Tourism

The activities include meals in heritage inns and hotels, folk festivals and fairs, elephant rides etc. Guest-host impacts are more because rural areas are highly accessible from resort areas. Tourists make local people into photography objects by touching them to see if they are real, bidding for their ornaments and clothes. Local people get divided by this. Those who live on tourism encourage tourists but others will protest against this.

3. Historical Tourism

Palaces and forts are favourite destinations for tourists who want to re create the lifestyle and key events of the period. Such destinations are normally in well developed cities and townships where institutionalised tourism industry operates with special facilities for all grades of tourists. Guest-host interaction will be business like. Since the infrastructure is well developed, guest and hosts do not feel constrained by each other. The pressure of tourist oriented products are not borne by local residents. However inflation due to tourist consumption affects items of daily use, rents, transportation etc.

4. Environmental Tourism

Tourists are attracted to remote areas like mountains and forests. This tourism uses geographic uniqueness as a resonance and explores man-land relationships. Eg: Tea plantations, high altitude communities, cultures etc. Guest-host interactions vary according to the degree to which such environments are open to outside interference and the degree to which such areas can withstand tourism. Guest-host interaction is thus variable and needs independent assessment. In such areas, tourists are allowed only one day excursions and are kept away from local communities under controlled conditions. Eg: Bangaram in Lakshadweep is an example.

5. Recreational Tourim

This includes palm fronted beaches, lush green golf courses, good food, accommodation, entertainment, gambling and floor shows. This is called 4S's of tourism. This leads to
  • Price rise/land use
  • Radical economic re-orientation
  • Crime, prostitution, drugs and tourism related violence
  • Seasonal labour influx
  • Servant-master relationship between the guest and the host.

How To Get Rid Of Unwanted Emails

Everyone receives a lot of unwanted emails. Promotional emails form the bulk of these kind of emails. Most of them come from ecommerce websites. When you buy something online or book a flight ticket, you need to enter your email address and that is where the problem begins. Once you enter your email on a particular website, they will include your email address on their mailing lists. The end result is, you will be bombarded with promotional emails. 

I used to receive around 30 unwanted emails in a day. The worst thing is that my important mails get buried under these junk mails. Even though gmail moves most such mails into promotions folder, some do creep into the important mails area . I am a person who likes to keep my inbox clean, so I was looking for a solution. You really can't stop entering your email address on ecommerce sites, but there is another way to get rid of those promotional emails.

Use Unsubscribe Option

The best way to get rid of unwanted emails is to unsubscribe from the mailing lists. Every promotional email will have an option to 'Unsubscribe' at the bottom of the mail. The unsubscribe option will be different on different mails. Some may look like this

Some other will be like




In the beginning, you will have to unsubscribe manually on each and every email. But slowly the number of junk emails will reduce. Once you unsubscribe from the final junk mail, you can live a free life ever after.

Role And Importance Of Tourist Profiling

The statistical analysis of tourists' features in relation to any destination is known as profiling of tourists. It facilitates improvements in 
  • Planning and deciding on development priorities 
  • Marketing strategies of tourism products and services
Profiling is also helpful for understanding guest-host relationships and tourism impacts. Regular visitor surveys are needed to obtain tourist profiles. Periodical surveys with specific objectives are also conducted.

Objectives Of  1988-89 survey of International Tourists
  • To understand socio-economic and demographic particulars of international tourists
  • To identify factors influencing their choice of India as a place to visit
  • To estimate expenditure pattern of international tourists
  • To identify the places visited, duration of stay and accommodation used at each place
  • To assess tourists' preference of accommodation, tariff rates and other services
  • To assess their level of satisfaction
  • To construct a consumer price index for international tourists
  • To assess demographic particulars of transit tourists and identify the reasons for their not visiting India
The intrinsic appeal of a place is measured in terms of percentage of repeat visitors. The decision to visit a place depends on a variety of factors like security, tourist appeal and costs about alternate destination choices. Identification of these factors are necessary for planning promotional strategies.

Heritage Hotels

Q) Explain the concept and growth of heritage hotels in India. Discuss main guidelines for their classification and incentives provided for their promotion?

The concept of heritage hotels is not new to the world. There were famous hotels in Europe in the past. After independence in India, the prime time was over for the palaces and havelis of Maharajas and British lords. Marharajas wanted to use the palaces for some useful purpose than getting them ruined. The first heritage hotel in India was set up by Maharaja Man Singh II of Jaipur. Thus Ram Bagh Palace became the first heritage hotel on 8th December 1957. Later it was taken over by Taj group of hotels.

Another type of heritage hotels also came into being in Kerala. Traditional wooden houses were dismantled and put up near back waters in the name of 'coconut lagoon'. Heritage hotels provide a glimpse of the luxury and royal life led by the Maharajas. The ministry of tourism realized that the traditional rules and norms for conventional hotels would take away the ambiance of these residences and would lead to losing its traditional nature.

The traditional looks and lifestyle of these buildings attracted a lot of tourists. And thus a new classification of hotels emerged in 1991 as Heritage hotels.

Classification

1. Definition

Heritage hotels should cover running hotels in palaces/castles, forts/havelis/residence of any size, which where built prior to 1950.

2. General Features
  • Architectural features and construction must be in the traditional way
  • Adequate parking space
  • Well maintained and well equipped rooms with carpets and furniture in keeping with the traditional lifestyle
  • Guest rooms should be clean, airy, pest free and attached bathrooms should have modern facilities
  • There should be a reception, cash and information counter attended by trained and experienced personnel
  • The kitchen and poultry should be professionally designed to ensure efficiency of operation
  • Knives and utensils used in kitchen should be of high standards
  • Drinking water should be bacteria free
  • Garbage disposal arrangements and dish washing should be done with running hot and cold water
3. Service

It should offer quality cuisine and beverage. Trained professionals should be at service, who can understand English. There must be phone service in the rooms.

4. Conservation

The basic architecture should not be interfered while renovation or expansion. The hotels must be run on a professional basis while losing none of their ambiance and services. Heritage hotel's standard should not be less than 4 stars.

Incentives

1. Tax Exemptions

50% exemption from income tax and balance 50% is also exempted if reinvested in tourism industry. Hotels approved between 1990-1995 are eligible for Tax Holiday Deductions. It constitutes 25-30% of profit for 10 years. Banks like ICICI, IDBI etc provide grant interest debate of 20% on foreign exchange earnings. 

2. Depreciation

Hotel buildings are eligible for depreciation of 20%. Furniture and fittings have a depreciation of 15%.

3. Interest Subsidy

IFCI, TFCI and state financial institutions provide interest subsidy. 4,5 star hotels get 1% interest subsidy for up to 75 lakhs. 1-3 star hotels get 3% on entire loan. 

4. Foreign Exchange Incentive Quota

10% of direct foreign exchange earnings of approved hotels are eligible for foreign exchange incentive. This can be used for importing vehicles, publicity, advertising etc.

5. Concessional Customs Duty

Customs duty reduction is allowed for imports of goods for initial set up or substantial expansion of the hotel.

Role Played By Air India In Promoting Tourism In India

In 1955 a tourism cell was formed in Air India. It was subsequently upgraded to a division in 1981 with its base in New Delhi.

1. Tourism Division

The division played an important role in promoting inbound tourist traffic to India. The division has 4 main sections
  • Tourism
  • Public relations
  • Mountaineering and trekking
  • Congresses and conventions
The division works in close liaison with the department of tourism and its overseas offices, to plan the marketing strategies for promoting tourism to India. 

2. Public Relations and Tourism Generating Activities

The idea of the activities is to 
  • Project India as an attractive tourist destination
  • How Air India can make it much more convenient and meaningful
The activities are categorised into mainline activities and ancillary activities.

a) Mainline Activities

This include participation in major international travel trade shows and meets. Sponsoring visits to India of travel agents and writers. Arranging Indian cultural events and food festivals abroad. Foreigners will get a taste of India's rich cultural heritage. Creating awareness and interest overseas about the range of tourism activities like fishing, wildlife, golf etc and also organizing travel marts. Involvement with the international congress and conventions associations to tap the extensive and growing market of conventions and congresses. Assisting state governments to promote their tourist facilities overseas.

b) Ancillary Activities

Providing mandatory passages to the department of tourism for inviting travel agents, writers and media representations. Organising 'know India' seminars overseas. Producing and screening of ausio-visuals highlighting special aspects of India. Publishing bi-monthly newsletter to bring about effective communication within Air India offices worldwide. Organising orientation seminars for Air India officers posted abroad to familiarise them with the latest news and trends regarding the Indian tourism product and its infrastructure.

3. Congresses and Conventions

Congresses and conventions cell started in 1976 and handles about 60 conferences yearly. It is actively engaged in marketing and promoting India as a conference destination. The cell works closely with Indian Convention Promotion Bureau, Ministry of Tourism and travel bodies for promoting India as a conference and convention venue. The cell succeeded in driving a considerable number of passengers to India.

4. Adventure Tourism

The objective is to promote mountaineering, trekking and adventure activities. The cell works in association with Indian mountaineering foundation, department of tourism and adventure clubs in India and outside. It assists in getting clearances from government agencies for expeditions to various peaks in the Himalayas. The cell actively promotes white-water rafting, car rallies, ballooning etc. Special emphasis is given to sports championships for which India has great potential.

5. Special Schemes

a) Stopovers

It is specially designed for the convenience of tourists and business travelers who would normally overfly India, provide them an excellent opportunity to enjoy  a holiday at budget rates. Cities overseas also come under the scheme. In India, stopover packages are offered at Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Madras. The shopper tours can be availed for a maximum period of 3 nights and must be pre-booked through any Air India office overseas. 

b) India Super Summer Saver Scheme

This is to promote tourism in the lean months of April-September. This is done in association with the Department of tourism, Indian airlines and leading hotel chains. Concession on fares and tariffs provided to use the under utilised hotel capacity during summer months. Tourists are directed to cooler hill resorts.

6. Special Promotions

Some of the special promotions are

a) MTV

On MTV, promotional programme focused on Calcutta was done in association with Department of Tourism and Taj Bengal.

b) Indian Crafts Exhibition in Austria

In 1993, a major exhibition of living Indian crafts were organised at Austria. The exhibition featured a display of contemporary Indian handicrafts.

c) Food & Culture Festivals

Following the popularity of Goan food and cultural festival organised in Singapore and Malaysia in 1992, Air India is planning more events.

d) Magasin du Nord India Promotion

A promotion of Indian handicrafts and goods in Scandinavia will be done through the largest department store chain Magasin du Nord.

e) Theme Song and Campaign

Theme song and campaign was launched by Air India to promote tourism. 

Purpose Of A Travel Mart

In a PATA travel mart, representatives of PATA member organisations enjoy the opportunity to meet with leading retail agencies, wholesalers, corporate and incentive travel planners and other producers of travel from around the world in an atmosphere of private business appointments. Several individual meetings are held and billions of dollars of business are closed.

Sellers

Sellers get to meet buyers of their products and services from around the world.

Buyer

For the buyer, mart provides an opportunity to meet hundreds of suppliers from throughout the Asia-Pacific region at one place. The buyers become aware of the products, packages and programmes. 

Working

Buyers and sellers pre-register themselves. They receive listings of participating organisations. Delegates pre-book appointments with participants from these lists and PATA coordinates a computerised schedule of appointments. Delegates can also book more appointments on site.

Activities Of PATA

Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) was formed in 1952. The activities of PATA cover a variety of issues. In collaboration with other international travel organisations and its own chapters, it holds many programmes worldwide like

  • Tourism research forums
  • Heritage conferences
  • Adventure tourism conferences
  • Seminars on various themes like HR development, open sky policy etc
  • Identifying new trends emerging within Pacific Asia Tourism etc
PATA lays stress on growth and development of sustainable tourism. PATA organises travel marts in which buyers and sellers of tourism products can meet and make business contracts.

Detailed Note On Palace On Wheels

1. Genesis of the Project

Palace on wheels concept was defined as - a hotel on wheels which is mobile in the night and is made stationary at a tourism centre in the day time so that the tourists can move around the tourism centre. The activities of traveling and staying could be merged. It was noted that Rajasthan offered vast tourism potential as the state was dotted with forts, rich heritage and scenic spots. So the package was decided to launch in Rajasthan.

2. Setting Up the Project

The old coaches belonging to Maharajas and Viceroys were reinforced and refurbished. The work was carried out at Railway Coach Works at Ajmer. The interior designs were retained to provide the original ambiance of the heritage. Modern gadgets like geysers in toilets and beds with modern foam cushions were installed for the comfort of tourists. RTDC was involved in the project. RTDC looked after reservation, promotion, housekeeping, catering on board, sight seeing etc whereas railways would be responsible for the operation of the train and maintenance. After some trial runs, the itinerary was fixed as 8 days/ 7 nights.

The main objectives of the project was
  • To promote tourism
  • To conserve and maintain century old heritage of royal coaches
  • To attract tourism to India with a unique tourism product which would become the talk of international tourism circles
  • To earn foreign exchange
3. Project Performance

Even though the project made profit in the initial years, it made incurring losses in the following years.

4. Package

The train runs on a steam engine and on metre gauge track. The space in the train is extremely limited and it lacked 5 star facilities. There are bars, library and restaurants inside the train. The train operates for 6 months from October-March. It does 26 trips of 8 days and 7 nights, each leaving Delhi every Wednesday and returning a week later. Destinations covered are Jaipur, Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Bharatpur, Fatehpur Sikri and Agra. The day hours are spent for sight seeing and visiting palace hotels for meals. At night when passengers are asleep, the train travels to the next destination.

5. Promotion

In the first few seasons, promotions were confined to UK market. Kaul Prever Harle & Simore of London were hired to do the initial promotion. There was an advertising campaign in the form of 9 insertions in the leading daily and Sunday national newspapers. The objective was to inform the British public of the design of the package. Government of India tourist office at London was stocked with brochures to distribute to enquirers. Famous UK journalists were invited to travel on Palace On Wheels. So that they would write travelogues on their newspapers. 30 sets of general press releases and 24 blowups were organised for display. A full time palace on wheels information service was established in London. Gradually it was promoted in more countries. A lot of publicity is carried out in the print media either through paid advertisements or in the form of write ups done by travel writers.

Kalinga Bali Yatra - Essay

Kalinga Bali yatra was an effort made by Orissa government in 1992-93 to attract tourists from South-East Asia. The journey was undertaken via sea-route from Orissa in India to Bali in Indonesia. The boat expedition was a modest attempt at retracting the old trade route to Bali and in the process, re-discovering the cultural ties between the two countries.

1. The Objectives

The objective was to focus the attention on building Orissa as a tourist destination for domestic and international tourists especially from South-East Asia. It aimed to highlight the 2500 years old cultural heritage of Orissa. Till then, Bali Yatra festival just involved locals but Kaliga Bali Yatra made the festival into a big cultural festival.

2. The Detailed Plan

It was an ambitious project and the Orissa government was not well equipped to take a sea voyage of such magnitude. The state government sought the help of Indian Navy. Indian Navy handed over INSV Samudra to undertake the journey of 6000 nautical miles with 7 crew members including 5 Navy soldiers and 2 civilians. It was decided that the yacht will leave Paradip on 10th November 1992 and after touching various ports en route, the journey will end at Bali where a grand reception with large scale cultural activities were organized. The civilian members were selected through advertisement and rigorous physical and oral tests.

3. The Voyage

The voyage started on Karthik Poornima Day (10th Nov 1992) at Paradip port in presence of 20000 people. Shri. Biju Patnaik, chief minister of Orissa and several Indonesian diplomats were present at the flag off ceremony. Presentation of Odissi and other dance forms added further colour to the festival. Several other dignitaries flagged off the yacht at various ports en route.

Off the Madras coast, the yacht was caught in heavy rain and wind. Various instruments started malfunctioning and water seeped inside. During the 5 day stay at Campbell Bay, everything was repaired and a through check of all gears was carried out. Off the Bojo Island coast, the engine failed. Thanks to the efficient and well trained crew, the yacht reached Pedang.

At Jakarta 3 days were spent for repair. The ceremonial entry of Yacht to Bali was enacted on 31 Jan 1993, the governor of Bali was the chief guest. A huge reception ceremony with traditional Orissa dance and art forms were conducted. A huge number of dignitaries were present. Governor of Bali said that the venture would strengthen the cultural ties between Kalinga and Bali. 

After a month's stay, the journey back to India started on 3rd February 1993 with a cast off ceremony. On 8th April 1993 INSV Samudra reached Paradip port and next day a grand reception was accorded to the voyagers.

Impacts Of Ethnic Tourism

There are positive and negative impacts for ethnic tourism.

Positive Impacts

1. Economic Benefits

There will be economic benefits to locals, middlemen and country as a whole. The benefits are the same as in mass tourism. It creates more employment, higher income, improves standard of living etc. However, most of the benefits go to people outside the ethnic groups.

2. Cultural Revitalization

Ethnic tourism helps revive the local people's interest and pride in their cultural traditions and values. The influence of western culture has diminished the interests of local people in their traditions. The specific interest of the tourist in local culture and tradition revives the interests of local people in their own culture. The advanced higher level members of the local community will use this as an opportunity to re-educate and re-establish pride in traditional skills and values. There occurs a general revival of interest in traditional festivals and fairs in religious ceremonies, art forms and craft modulation. Ethnic tourism also contributes towards strengthening ethnic and political identities.

Negative Effects

1. Commoditization of Ethnic and Cultural Products

Local culture itself is treated as a commodity in ethnic tourism. Travel agents and tour operators, in order to attract tourists will convert all products of local culture into marketable commodities. Local dresses, toys, architecture, idols, potteries, rituals, festivals and all are made sellable things. Local people are paid to perform and enact for the tourists. Tourists and local people are turned into buyers and sellers respectively in a competitive cultural market. If commoditization continues unchecked, it will be destructive to the local culture. 

2. Natives Assume Artificial Behaviour

Tourists' demand for 'authentic' and 'original' manifestations lead to staged authenticity. Sometimes art forms would have evolved from what was written in the tourist brochures and advertisements. The tourists at times demand that they need the performance exactly as per the brochure. Thus, the locals are forced to perform in the way the tourists want, in order to meet their demand for 'authentic' and 'original' manifestations. Generally, local people wears western dress and puts up local dress thereby turning themselves into actors.

Define Ethnic Tourism? Difference Between Ethnic And Cultural Tourism

Meaning of Ethnic Tourism

Ethnic tourism signifies tourists' interests in the customs of the indigenous and exotic peoples. It is a form of special interest tourism as different from general tourism which focuses directly on local people. Ethnic tourism involves intimate contacts with the "authentic" indigenous culture. The tourist visits the homes of local people, observes and participates in their festivals, dances, rituals and other forms of cultural expressions. Human contacts with indigenous people is very important and involves study and purchase of local products as well.

Difference Between Ethnic And Cultural Tourism

In ethnic tourism, the tourist is interested to have a direct contact with the local people. He/she wants a first-hand experience with the way of life and cultural artifacts of the people who are being visited. In cultural tourism, the contact with the people is indirect. The tourist's main interest is not direct exposure to and involvement worth the traditional purchases of the locals. It is viewing the culture, not experiencing it.

Short Note On Elephant Festival, Desert Festival Of Rajasthan And Rath Yatra Of Puri

1. Elephant Festival

Great elephant march was an event organised by Kerala Tourism Development Corporation in 1990 to attract foreign tourists. It is a 4 day event which starts from Trissur and ends at Kovalam. It is lead by 101 tuskers. Elephants are decorated with gilted headgear and mahouts. The march begins with chenda and panchavadyam followed by Karagam and Kavadi, the traditional folk dances. 

Tuskers then march from Muduvara to Velangan hills. Handicraft stalls and potters wheels provide a chance to shop. On the second day, backwater cruise in Kochi and Kathakali performances await the tourists. On third day, at Alappuzha the tourists are provided Chundan Vallom for boating in Punnamada lake. Kerala style lunch is also served.

Boat racing will also be arranged. On the 4th day, elephant march reaches Trivandrum where Gajaghoshayatra is arranged, followed by display of Kerala marshial arts. It has been very popular among tourists.

2. Desert Festival Of Rajasthan

Desert festival of Jaisalmer is organised by Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation. Jaisalmer is the city of sand dunes. It was first organised in 1979. February of every year comes alive with brilliant colours, music and festivity. The festival coincides with the full moon in February. The pick of the festival is the desert folk music by Langas and Manganiyars.

Camel acrobatics, camel races, turban tying contests, mustache contests and camel safaris are the attractions. The locals participate in multi-coloured costumes. A variety of handicrafts will also be there for sale. Jaisalmer is well connected by rail and road with major cities of India.

3. Rath Yatra Of Puri

Puri is the abode of Lord Jagannath. Rath Yatra has special significance to pilgrims who throng Puri. 3 deities Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra are taken in 3 huge chariots in a thundering procession to their summer temple for a week. In mid-april Chandan Yatra at Puri is performed, in which Chalantic Pratima have a ritual boat ride after a refreshing bath in scandal wood scented water. It is followed by Snana Yatra in which the main images are installed on their bathing platform and given a ceremonial bath.

Then the 3 deities ride their grand chariots to their garden house and return to the main temple riding their chariots drawn by devotees. The festival is very popular among tourists.

Relation Between Tourism And Pilgrimage - 3 Prominent Pilgrimage Centres In India

Pilgrimage and tourism are closely related. Tourist industry fetches large number of local tourists to pilgrim centres. Pilgrimage tourism helps greatly in travel promotion. It attracts large number of private tour operators as it is profitable. During early days, the journey to Vaishno Devi was very difficult. Now better roads and rail and air link to Jammu made transportation easy. Tirupati, the most popular Hindu temple in the world now has an airport. 

During the old days, pilgrim centres were small places but now they are big towns with luxury hotels and big shopping malls. The scope of pilgrimage tourism is area specific. Inspite of the limited scope, pilgrimage tourism has enough potential to develop domestic tourism. Old theertha yatras were not merely pilgrimage, it also involved a certain amount of adventure as well.

3 Prominent Pilgrimage Centres In India

1. Vaishno Devi

Vaishno Devi is a major pilgrim centre for Hindus. Lakhs of devotees visit the temple to pay their respect to Goddess Vaishno Devi. Popular belief is that whoever visits the shrine does not go back disappointed. It is situated on Trikuta mountain, 61Km from Jammu. Jammu is well connected by road, rail and air. Indian airlines has connecting flights from Srinagar, Chandigarh, Delhi and Amritsar. Travel agencies also conduct tours from Delhi and other cities.

It includes a 13Km hike on foot or pony from Katra to Vaishno Devi. The route is fully tiled and lighted with Sodium bulbs. Resting places are also available. Climate during winter will be too cold. Banganga, Adhkawari, Darbar and Bhairon Ghat are the places to visit.

2. Kamakhya

It is located in Assam. Kamakhya is associated with magic and witchcraft and most famous of all the seats of Tantra in India. It is situated on Nilacala, 3 miles from Guwahati. Mother Goddess Kamakhya is worshipped in 3 forms
  • As a primordial deity associated with and patronised by Lord Vishnu
  • As a virgin
  • As a spouse of Lord Siva
The temple has no image of Goddess. There is a cave in which a stone is in a corner over which a symbol of Yoni is carved and a natural spring keeps the stone wet all around the year. The devotees enjoy fish and flesh eating, animal sacrifice etc. The chief worshipers are Garos of Assam.

The original Kamakhya temple was destroyed in a Mughal attack in 16th century. The present temple was rebuilt in A.D 1665 by King Naranarayana, the King of Cooch-Bihar. Guwahati is connected by road,rail and air. Train service is available from Calcutta, Delhi, Bombay, Cochin, Trivandrum and Madras. The place is now a big shopping centre as well.

3. Tirupati

Tirupati temple belongs to Venkateswara. The main deity is placed at the top of Tirumala hills. There is a chain of temple complexes and Tirthas. The history of the temple dates back to A.D 966. The temple was patronised by Pallava, Cholas, Pandyas, Vijayanagar ruler and by Kings of Mysore. It is a masterpiece of Dravidian architecture with heavily carved gopurams facing east. The entrance gates of 3 gopurams are made of bronze, silver and gold respectively. 

There are 108 Thithas and 10,000 year old natural arch right behind the temple. Temple trust has over 15,000 employees. Tirupati is well connected by road, rail and air.
Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...