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It is the capital city. Beautiful calm lagoon is an ideal spot for water sports, swimming and sunbathing on beaches. Marine life can be seen at aquarium, museum and glass bottomed boats. Kayaks and sailing yachts are available. Floating restaurant and tent accommodation are added attractions.
It is known for its scenic beauty with small islets called Tilakkam, Pitti and uninhabited island called cheriyam. Peculiar feature of Kalpeni is the huge storm bank of coral debries. Kalpeni is a progressive island where girls went to school when education was considered a taboo. You can swim, Kayak, reef walk and indulge in water sports. Water sports raft will be available there. There is a banyan factory and a lighthouse which can be included in the visit.
This is the second largest island. It is crescent shaped and has one of the largest lagoons. Most men are seamen who live in systematically arranged villages known as 'Athiris'. There is a lighthouse constructed in 1885. It is an important tuna fishing area and there are tuna canning factories as well. A long drive through coconut groves and village roads will be exciting. There are bathing huts and change rooms, so one can swim, beach walk, pedal boats and kayak facilities are there.
Shallow lagoons in the west is ideal for water sports. Long sandy beaches and sand banks on the southern tip for sun baths. The place is ideal for a real holiday with its tourist huts aesthetically situated in the coconut palm grooves in the beaches facing the lagoon. Water sports crafts and glass bottomed boats are available for hire.
This is an uninhabited island. Tear drop shaped and is enriched by continuous halo of creamy sand. Inland lake in the heart of Bangaram reflects the blue sky and graceful palms that surrounds it. Well equipped and professionally manned scuba diving facility is available at the resort. Undersea reefs of Bangaram is the best. Underwater sea blooms with marine life and coral reefs. Diving courses and lagoon diving is offered for beginners. Bangaram is ideal for deep sea fishing.
Q) Trace the growth and development of resorts as popular tourist destinations. What are the essential pre-requisites for developing a beach resort?
Q) Write an essay on Beach Tourism?
Development of specialized resorts date back to 17th and 18th centuries. Mineral water available at particular places and faith in its medicinal property was the primary attraction then. These resorts were called spa resorts. Gradually, additional facilities for pleasure and entertainment for patients came. Europe spa treatment is valued even today.
By the middle of 18th century, attention began to be paid to the curative effects of sea water and sea bathing and as a result seaside resorts began to appear as an alternative to inland spa. During 19th century, accommodation was included in resorts. All beach resorts became well connected by railways. Concept of relaxation appeared in the later part of the 19th century. Treatment of TB was the principal factor in the creation of French Riviera resorts.
Curative powers of spas lost its credibility in 20th century. Improved road transport turned resorts in large population areas into dormitories.
Beach tourism has led to an overall development of tourism in many parts of the world. During mellow sunshine and warm winter, tourists travel to famous beaches of the world. Beach tourism utilises aesthetic and environmental values of the beach. It also combines water and land resources usage.
Water usage comprises swimming, surfing, sailing and other water adventure sports. Land activities include construction of hotels, cottages, parking areas, entertainments and shopping facilities, roads etc. A beach resort needs to be developed as an integrated complex to function as a self- contained community.
(Now write the pre-requisites available at Page #29 of Block 4 in TS-02 study material)
Tourists coming to beach resorts stay longer, so additional facilities like indoor and outdoor games, yoga, ayurvedic treatment etc must be there. Tight security must be there at the beaches as there will be intruders.
Adventure sports involve high risk activities of speed, height etc. It requires a high level of physical fitness and specialized gear. There are 3 types of adventure sports
- Aerial adventure sports
- Water adventure sports
- Land based adventure sports
1) Aerial Adventure Sports
This involves jumping off from an aircraft or balloon and descending by means of a parachute. Better designed parachutes have made this a safe sport. It is also used as a means of transportation by armed forces. An average amount of fitness and training is required to reduce the risk of injuries sustained while landing. Parachuting has limited scope as far as tourism is concerned. The infrastructure requires aircraft, parachutes and a large landing zone due to limited steerability of these parachutes. This makes the sport very expensive.
ii) Sky Diving
This is the fastest mechanical sport. A sky diver jumps off an aircraft or a balloon at a much greater height without deploying the parachute initially and opens after some interval at a pre-determined height. Ram Air Parachutes nowadays enables the sky diver to travel forward at a speed of 25 to 30 Km/hr in zero wind condition. This enables them to land in a small area with much greater accuracy. The high cost and training required drives low budget tourists away from sky diving.
ii) Hang Gliding
This is a comparatively cheaper sport. It uses a semi-rigid wing made of fabric supported by a light alloy frame. It flies like a glider and control is achieved by a shift in his own weight by the pilot. It just requires a hill terrain of a reasonable gradient which can offer
- a small sloping patch for a running take off
- Relatively obstruction free flight path
- Flat area for landing which shall be free of obstructions
Hang gliding has reasonable potential in India due to the availability of hilly terrain in all parts of the country. Participation will be limited due to the training, skill and physical fitness required. Srinagar Valley, Kangra Valley and Nilgiri Hills will be good places for Hang Gliding.
iv) Para Sailing
A Simple sport which involves winching or towing a parachutist to a height of few hundred feet in the air and then descending by means of a parachute. This can be done using speed boats as well. India has great potential as infrastructural costs are low and is safe and people can participate without much training.
v) Bungee Jumping
A new sport popular in the western world. It just requires a Bungee Chord and a bridge or a tower to jump off. The rush of adrenalin makes the experience very exhilarating. It has good potential due to low costs.
2) Water Adventure Sports
Majority of the activities are white water based.
i) White Water Rafting
An inflatable raft made of synthetic material is used to negotiate fast flowing waters. It is a safe sport and people with no experience can participate. It is moderately expensive due to the cost of equipment. Coorg rafting is an example.
ii) White Water Kayaking
Kayak is a small manned boat used by Eskimos for seal hunting. It is a highly maneuverable boat and can easily flip over. It requires rigorous practicing and skills which drives general tourists away from it.
iii) White Water Canoeing
A canoe is open unlike a Kayak and the paddler executes the strokes on only one side of the canoe rather than on both sides of the Kayak. Tourism potential is limited like in the case of Kayaking. Popular places are Bhagirathi river from Uttarkashi to Gangotri and from Uttarkashi to Dheran.
iv) Flat Water Adventure Sports
These are practiced on seas or large lakes.
a. Water Skiing : It is practiced by being towed behind a boat on any large water body. Skills can be achieved in a short time and costs are not high. The problem in India is that there are not many large lakes.
b. Wind Surfing : A small surf board with an attachment for sails is used for sliding the surf on the seas. Directional control is achieved by shifting the sail position and body weight of the wind surfs. This sport requires skills.
c. Surfing : A surf board is used for riding the waves and surf on the sea. Control is achieved by body manoeuvrings.
3) Land Based Adventure Sports
A popular sport which can be done by young and old, be fit or not so fit people. Trekking is associated with journey across forest tracks or in the country side, which is still largely untouched by formal means of transportation. In India trekking in hill valley is popular among college students. Equipment requirement is very low and the costs too. It attracts a lot of tourists due to the flexibility of time, budget and fitness required. Several tour operators are running successful trekking operations. Jammu, Srinagar, Ladakh, Amarnath cave trek are examples. Proper clothing and shoes are required for trekking.
It requires more skills and fitness than trekking. Due to adverse weather conditions, requirement of equipments are much more. This increases the expenses. Himalaya attracts both domestic and foreign climbers.
Skiing is a major tourist attraction in European Alps. Not much equipment is required, but infrastructural costs are high at ski resorts. The high snow line in Himalayas limit the ski season to only a few months. Popular places are Gulmarg in Kashmir, Shimla etc. Hell-skiing is a new sporting entry. Group of tourists are taken directly to hotels in mountain regions and they are lifted straight to the base of snow slopes. Another helicopter takes three or four people to the top of the slope.
iv) Rock Climbing
This is a fast emerging sport in India. It involves climbing straight flat rocks under guidance. Little equipment is required. Delhi, Mount Abu, Western Ghats are examples.
1. Indoor Sports
Some of the indoor games are badminton, table tennis, billiards, squash, skating, chess, bridge, carom board etc. Generally these games are available at hotels and clubs. You need membership to enter clubs, there are short-term membership as well. Clubs are generally maintained by state, so government officials or high budget tourists avail the facilities. General tourists thus miss out on these opportunities.
Hotels normally allow residents only, sometimes they allow non-residents for a fee which will be very high for general tourists. Small scale entrepreneurs have opened small facilities for indoor games which can be availed at small fees.
2. Outdoor Sports
Golf is very popular among international tourists. The infrastructure required for golf is very large and maintenance is very expensive. Most of the golf courses in our country are managed by state or armed forces. Diversity of golf courses in India attracts tourists. There are golf courses in desert, mountains, plains and beach resorts. India has the oldest golf club outside Britain and Gulmarg golf course in Kashmir is the highest of all.
Most golf courses are well connected by road, rail and air. Most golf courses need membership, short-term memberships are also provided. Other facilities like table-tennis, billiards, restaurants and bars will also be there. Some of the popular golf courses are in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Kodai Kanal, Cochin, Srinagar, Gulmarg etc
Almost every town has facility for tennis. Most of the hotels have them. Temporary membership will be available.
iii) Horse Riding
Horse riding is available in most of the hill stations. They are used for sightseeing and transportation. Horses can be hired for a fee on basis of time or distance covered.
Cycles are available for hire for sightseeing where distances are not much. The main advantage is that the journey can be paced as per the tourist's requirements, enjoying the scenery on the way. Absence of separate cycle track makes it unpopular among foreign tourists. It holds a lot of potential.
Emerging as a popular sport in India. Hotels, sports bodies, municipal corporations and clubs have swimming pools. Sea beaches are a natural facility. Trainers and life guards will be available at most facilities. Facilities for low budget tourists are not adequate though.
Lakes provide enjoyment through boating. In the sea, people can go in glass bottomed boats to see the underwater sea. This facility is available at Bangaram, at Lakshadweep and Port Blair in Andaman Nicobar Islands. The main limitation is that the place must have a large reservoir of water or a lake. The potential is not completely utilised yet. A number of lakes in Srinagar, Nainital and South India provide boating facilities.
vii) Angling or Fishing
Fishing activities are not organised in India to attract tourists. The sport has vast potential due to the variety of fish available in India. Eg: Himalayan Trout, Nilgiri Trout, Mahseer etc. Added advantage is that it involves hiking and camping and thus adds the attractions of trekking to a limited extent. Commercial over utilisation of fishing must be controlled to promote this sport.
Fishing in India can be classified into
- Mahseer Fishing : Himalayas and Kaveri river
- Trout Fishing : High altitude streams in Kashmir and Nilgiri hills
- Sea fishing