Essentials Of Decision Making In Administrative Organizations

Decision making serves the purpose of fulfilling organizational objectives. Decisions are affected by socio-economic, political and cultural factors prevailing in this environment. Work sub-division specifies the tasks at each level. Important decisions are taken at the top hierarchy. Those decisions become guiding criteria for junior decision makers who will take divisions of a more detailed and procedural character. 

The quality control and scrutiny takes place when the decision made at lower levels are submitted to higher authorities for approval. Socio-economic and political data constitute the raw material for a decision, which is provided by the structured communication system. Training is provided for officers in most organizations so that the decision made by him is sound and effective. 

Steps involved in decision making mentioned by Herbert Simon are
  1. Identify the problem
  2. Analyze the problem
  3. Determine possible and available alternatives
  4. Evaluate the impact of alternatives
  5. Select the best alternative
The ultimate purpose of decision making in any organization is to ensure rational, feasible, acceptable and practical decisions.

Waiting Period For Hyundai Elite i20

The current waiting period (as of 25 Feb 2015) for Hyundai Elite i20 in India is around 2 months. That is the maximum booking period, so don't think that it will take 2 months all the time. If the vehicle comes in stock at the dealer early, you may get it even quicker. 2 months waiting period is in general sense.

Election Commission Of India Shortnote

Election commission established by the constitution ensures the citizen's popular and political participation without fear or favour. The tasks of election commission involves preparing or updating voters lists, preparing electoral rolls, electronic voting machines, ballot papers etc. It is also the duty of the election commission to make sure that the contestants do not violate the 'Model Code of Conduct'. 

Election commission is basically a statutory, fully autonomous body established by the constitution to oversee elections for the Indian parliament and state assemblies. Its independent functioning has been ensured by a number of provisions.

How To Remove All Hyperlinks In A Word File

In order to remove all hyperlinks in a word file, use the shortcut
  • Press “Ctrl-A” to select the whole document
  • Now Press “Ctrl-Shift-F9
That's it. All the hyperlinks will be removed.

Concept And Meaning Of Democracy

1. Historical Background

Democracy comes from Greek word 'demos' which means the people. Athens is supposed to be the first practitioner of democracy. People participated directly in the matters of governance. This is called direct democracy. Representative democracy is where people elect their representatives to conduct the business of running the state. Eg: India, UK, USA. UK is the mother of representative democracy starting from the Westminister Parliamentary Democracy. Representative democracy is the universal norm, it may be parliamentary or presidential.

2. Various Perspectives

There are liberal and marxist perspectives of democracy. Liberal perspective emphasizes on political equality, whereas marxist emphasize on socio-economic equality. They always had opposite views about democracy. The liberal concept of adult franchise, periodic elections, individual autonomy, rule of law and equality before law were dismissed by marxists as 'bourgeois' phenomenon. Liberals dismissed the democracy by marxists in countries like China and Soviet union as false democracy.

3. Defining Democracy

Though liberals and marxists disagree on meaning of democracy, they agree upon two things,
  • Popular and political participation in statecraft
  • Equality among citizen
  • Liberty
Though, marxists had a very different view on liberty.

4. State Institutions And Non-state Actors

State and Non-state actors that concern themselves with the issues of popular and political participation, equality and liberty are there. State institutions are organs of governments, election machinery, local-self governing institutions. Non-state actors include NGOs and peoples' movements which comprises pressure groups and lobbies.

Concerns Debated In The Context Of Review Of The Indian Constitution

There were concerns in various quarters for the government to be more responsive to its citizen's needs. There were arguments that India would progress faster if it switched over to a presidential form of government. There has been debates on Article 356 of the constitution which deals with the President's emergency powers. A current concern has been the desire of certain political formations subscribing to a particular ideology to change the constitution's secular, pluralist ethos to a narrow, sectarian one.

National commission was established on January 27, 2003 under the chairmanship of Venkatachalia to review the working of the constitution. The commission after studying the past 60 years analyzed how far our constitution is capable of responding to the needs of efficient, smooth and effective system of governance and socio-economic development of modern India. And then recommend changes without interfering with the basic structure of features of the constitution. The commission identified 10 areas for review and made 248 recommendations. No action was taken after that, mainly due to the vested interests of political parties.

Basic Features Of Indian Constitution

The basic features of Indian Constitution are

1. A Written Constitution

Ours is a written constitution. Majority of constitutions in the world are written, whereas UK is an exception. Our constitution has been amended a number of times.

2. Parliamentary Democracy

India is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminister model of UK. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and the council of ministers assist him. Head of the state is the President, all administration is carried out on his name but he is only a nominal executive. Legislature, executive and judiciary are the 3 organs of the government that work together.

3. Independence of Judiciary

Judicial independence is another hallmark of our constitution. Judges can perform their duties without external pressure. 

4. Cooperative Federalism

A federal state is one in which the states have self reliance. The state government has the power of running a state and the central government can only interfere in certain things. Eg. United States. A unitary state is one in which everything is controlled by the central government. Eg: UK. 

India is neither a federal or unitary state. In India, certain subjects are under state governments and others under central government. In case of a dispute, the final decision will be taken by the central government.

5. Fundamental Rights And Duties

This is a unique feature of our constitution. The ill treatment from British made our constitution makers to include fundamental rights in our constitution. They wanted the citizens of free India not to experience the same kind of treatment again. The constitution guarantees certain rights to its citizens that are considered to be fundamental for their well being. Those rights are enforceable by courts of law. Fundamental rights are the bedrock of an Indian citizen's life, liberty and property.

Fundamental rights are
  • Right to freedom
  • Right against exploitation
  • Right to religion
  • Cultural and educational rights
  • Right to constitutional remedies
Right to property was a fundamental right, but it was made a legal right through 44th constitutional amendment act. With this act, the government can acquire any person's property by giving compensation. Fundamental rights cannot be suspended except during an emergency, even then the Articles 20 and 21 remain in operation.

Article 20 states that 'no person shall be punished on the basis of laws that are enacted after a crime has been committed, protection from being punished more than once for the same offense, protection from standing trial against oneself. 

Article 21 ensures protection of life and liberty. The state does not have the right to take away the life of a person, except through the procedure established by law. 

Fundamental duties became part of our constitution in 1970s. Indians considered their rights as more important and behaved as if they had no obligation towards the country, so fundamental duties were introduced. 

Fundamental duties are
  • Protection of territorial integrity and sovereignty of India
  • Respect for the national flag and emblem
  • Promotion of clean environment
 Failure to perform the duties will invite action by law.

6. Directive Principles Of State Policy

Directive principles are guidelines to the government for just and effective governance. Some of them  are 
  • Provision of equal pay for equal work
  • Prohibition of all intoxicants
  • Promotion of small and cottage industries
Directive principles are not legally enforceable. Over the years, the government has enacted suitable legislation based on various directive principles. So you can say that they are legally enforceable also. Directive principles were taken from Irish constitution.  

Factors Of Social Change

There are 4 main factors of social change
  • Biological Factors
  • Geographical Factors
  • Technological Factors
  • Socio-cultural Factors
Biological Factors

Biological factors can be further classified into two types, non-human biological factor and human biological factor.

a) Non-human Biological Factor

Non-human biological factors include plants and animals. Human beings depend on plants and animals for survival. Changes in ecological system affects human lives, but modern man has been able to overcome the effects by virtue of his control over the environment such as domestication of animals.

b) Human Biological Factor

The change in genetic characters of human beings determine the physical and mental make up of modern man. Population is considered to be one of the most important factors of social change. Increase in population has led to social change.

Geographical Factors

Social changes brought by geographical factors are many. Such as the migration of Irish population to the United States after the potato famine in Ireland. Natural disasters like earthquakes and tsunami can cause environmental and social changes. Ecological changes like deforestation can be disastrous to a society.

Technological Factors

Variation in technology affects social organization in a big way. Industrial revolution and technical revolution changed the social organization and structure. There has been misuse of technology as well.

Socio-cultural Factors

This is the most important casual factor of social change. Social change has been caused by human activities in the form of discoveries, inventions, diffusion, social movements etc. Diffusion, the process of spread of culture from group to group has been one of the main causes of social change. Eg: Jazz. Social and revolutionary movements have also become a factor. Eg: French revolution.

Denotified Tribes

In 1871 some tribes were noted as criminal in the Criminal Tribes Act launched by the British. It allowed the police to arrest them on suspicion. The tribes were denotified in 1952. Criminal Tribes Act was taken off and they came to be known as denotified tribes. The Antrolikar committee in 1949 emphasized that denotified tribes were not more or less criminal than the rest of the population. 

There are welfare centres for denotified tribes. They strive for socio-economic upliftment of DNTs. The centres provide pre-primary education to children between 3-5 and training in sewing and embroidery work to girls and women. DNTs aspire themselves to be included in the SC/ST lists so as to be able to avail the benefits extended to them.

Scheduled Tribes And Provisions Made For Them In Indian Constitution

Census commission in different states observed that certain groups of people didn't fit in the general pattern of classification. They were referred to as adivasis, girijanas and vanavasis. Tribals were characterized by egalitarian society, simple economic system with minimum specialization of functions yet self sufficient, deep religious, cultural and emotional affections with their habitat and relative isolation from the rest of the world.

All tribal communities are not classified as a scheduled tribes. A scheduled tribe is one which has been given a place in the schedule for the concerned state by the president. It has been done with the consultation of the governor of the state. A tribal community in different parts of the country or state may not be given scheduled tribe status. Sometimes only a particular group of a community is given the status.

The decision of the president will be based on the socio-economic condition of the people in a group. The list of scheduled tribe needs to be revised and modified by an act of parliament. 2001 census revealed that scheduled tribe formed 8.6% of the total population of the country.

Approach of non-tribal people with vested interests have left them in debts. Money lenders have taken advantage of their famine and other crisis. Some tribals want to send their children to schools but most are not so keen. Many children find it difficult to adjust with the medium of instruction at schools. 

Lack of knowledge about their special rights make them easy targets for exploitation at the hands of corrupt officials. Scheduled tribes have provisions for easy access to loans on soft terms and conditions, they have reservation of 7.5% seats in educational institutions, jobs in public sector, reservation in Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly. Even then, all welfare programmes must be delivered at their doorstep for better progress.

Do Women Constitute A Marginalised Group ? Give Reasons

In a patriarchal society widowed or divorced women are often deserted by the family. Women are greatly marginalized by the male dominant societies like in India. Often women are forced to continue with their husband even if she is subjected to humiliation, abuse and violence. Her acceptance in the society largely depends on her marital status. A woman who complains or seeks separation is treated as a deviant. A husband on the other hand can discard his wife and marry another person.

A married woman with children, particularly sons receive more respect than an unmarried woman or married woman without children or with only daughters. Women have been ill-treated for dowry, delivery of girl child etc. A girl child is often treated by societies as a liability. Women become victims of rape and other forms of sexual harassment.

Only a very few percentage of women share their experiences and mobilize others to fight social barriers and oppression. They have tried to reach out to women in distress. They pressurize the government to take appropriate actions effecting literacy, vocational training and empowerment programmes. There should be short stay homes for temporary relief, especially for distressed women with children. 

Waiting Period For Royal Enfield Bullets In India

The current waiting period (as of February 2015) for Royal Enfield bullets in India is around 9 to 14 months. The Classic 350 model has a waiting period of 9 months whereas Thunderbird 500 has a waiting period of 1 year and 2 months. The waiting period is more or less the same in all dealerships across India.

However Royal Enfield has acquired an additional 50 Acre plot in Chennai to speed up production. But still, don't expect the waiting period to reduce at least for another year and a half.

Plight Of Orphaned, Delinquent and Destitute Children

Q) Comment on the plight of the orphaned, delinquent and destitute children. Does Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 give them any help ?

Q) What has Indian state done to ameliorate the plight of orphaned, delinquent and destitute children?

Children get happiness and joy in their family. Unfortunately a lot of children are orphans. Orphans become victims of abuse and neglect by adults. Thus they turn to begging and petty crimes. Some of them are admitted to institutions where their conduct is improved and they are taught some craft which would help them make a living. Orphaned and delinquent children suffer from lack of attention, affection, recreation and play, lack of opportunities and free expression of personal wishes. Sometimes they are not fed properly and live in small, unhygienic rooms. Often people who deal with them are insensitive, untrained and do not do their duties well. All these things raise anger and frustration among children which eventually leads them to crimes. These children need shelter, education, protection, vocational training, health care services and more importantly, counseling delivered with affection and encouragement.

Juvenile Justice Act

Juvenile Justice Act was passed in 1986 to provide uniform pattern of justice to juveniles throughout the length and breadth of the country. This Act makes provision for the protection and rehabilitation of neglected children and ensures legally that no child is lodged in jail or detained by police. The Juvenile Justice Act categorizes children into
  • Those who are neglected, destitute, orphaned and in dire need of care and protection. They are lodged into orphanage, observation homes or remand homes.
  • Delinquent children who await correctional measures. Neglected juvenile is a girl below 18 years and a boy below 16 years. They are lodged in reformatory institutions and special schools.
The act was then replaced by a child friendly Juvenile Justice Act 2000. In this act, children were categorized into juvenile offenders and neglected child. 18 years is the cut off age for boys and girls. The act makes the setting up of Juvenile Justice boards, child welfare committees and special juvenile police units compulsory. 24 hr free telephone service called childline was launched. Ministry of welfare and ministry of human resources development have launched several programmes to help children in difficult situations. There are a large no.of governmental NGOs working for the plight of children. Nothing will be fulfilled without the participation of the public.
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