1. Ethnic Tourism
Ethnic tourism focuses not only on monuments and archaeology but also on quaint customs of exotic people like Eskimos, American Indians, tribal communities, their rituals and ceremonies, their activities etc. These tourists target 'off beaten path'. This type of travel is normally done by elite tourists and comes at high costs. It involves intimate contact between guests and hosts. Intimate contact changes local people's lives. Tourist gaze changes everything. For eg: Monastry festivals in Ladakh is now held in summer instead of winter which is an off season. Beneficiaries are the tourists not the locals who pay for the festival.
2. Cultural Tourism
The activities include meals in heritage inns and hotels, folk festivals and fairs, elephant rides etc. Guest-host impacts are more because rural areas are highly accessible from resort areas. Tourists make local people into photography objects by touching them to see if they are real, bidding for their ornaments and clothes. Local people get divided by this. Those who live on tourism encourage tourists but others will protest against this.
3. Historical Tourism
Palaces and forts are favourite destinations for tourists who want to re create the lifestyle and key events of the period. Such destinations are normally in well developed cities and townships where institutionalised tourism industry operates with special facilities for all grades of tourists. Guest-host interaction will be business like. Since the infrastructure is well developed, guest and hosts do not feel constrained by each other. The pressure of tourist oriented products are not borne by local residents. However inflation due to tourist consumption affects items of daily use, rents, transportation etc.
4. Environmental Tourism
Tourists are attracted to remote areas like mountains and forests. This tourism uses geographic uniqueness as a resonance and explores man-land relationships. Eg: Tea plantations, high altitude communities, cultures etc. Guest-host interactions vary according to the degree to which such environments are open to outside interference and the degree to which such areas can withstand tourism. Guest-host interaction is thus variable and needs independent assessment. In such areas, tourists are allowed only one day excursions and are kept away from local communities under controlled conditions. Eg: Bangaram in Lakshadweep is an example.
5. Recreational Tourim
This includes palm fronted beaches, lush green golf courses, good food, accommodation, entertainment, gambling and floor shows. This is called 4S's of tourism. This leads to
- Price rise/land use
- Radical economic re-orientation
- Crime, prostitution, drugs and tourism related violence
- Seasonal labour influx
- Servant-master relationship between the guest and the host.