Economic Impacts Of Tourism On A Destination

Tourism is an important catalyst for economic development.

1. Employment

Tourism provides direct and indirect employment to 13.5 million people in India. National Action Plan is looking to double it by year 2000. Tourism industry has tremendous capacity to create both direct and indirect employment. Hotels, tour operators, travel agents, transport operators, guides get direct employment through tourism.  Plumbers, electricians, vegetable suppliers, taxi drivers, artisans, weavers, shop workers get indirect employment.

The ratio between investment and job creation is much higher in tourism than manufacturing. For example, at a hill station almost all families depend on tourism for their livelihood. Local hotels, restaurants and transport services provide jobs to local people. Local people in turn will require goods, services, education etc which will provide indirect employment to another section of people.

There are some negative employment impacts as well. Most of the jobs are seasonal. So employers go for temporary recruitment or import labour force from outside. This denies employment for local people. Sometimes local people's employment are limited to small jobs and managerial jobs go to outsiders. Shops and restaurants are owned by outsiders. Thus earnings from tourism do not come to locals. The prices of essential commodities will also rise to tourist demand.

2. Income

Income and employment effects are closely related. Demand for goods and services like accommodation, transport, shopping generate income both direct and indirect. The extend to which direct employment and income generated depends on the volume of tourist traffic, amount of tourist expenditure and pattern of their spending.

Tourism provides income with a multiple effect. Apart from the first recipient of the the tourist money, there are many others who become beneficiaries through chain transactions. The multiplier effect is greater if the tourism industry buys goods or services from local market sectors. If the tendency is to import goods and services, the multiplier effect decreases.

3. Foreign Exchange Earnings

Tourism is the largest foreign exchange earning economic activity in India. Foreign exchange earnings went from Rs.1800 crores to Rs.3916 crores in 1992. RBI calculates the foreign exchange earnings and publishes the estimates after a two year gap. The department of tourism publishes estimates each year. UN report on economic impact on tourism on India noticed that the tourism receipt in dollar has decline when there was an increase in tourist arrivals.The possible reasons are devaluation of rupee, rise in proportion of budget tourists and leakage of money into black market.

While calculating foreign exchange earnings from tourism, the leakage must be subtracted. Otherwise the figures might be misleading. Some of the factors of leakage are
  • Money spent for importing goods and material for tourism
  • Foreign exchange spent for publicity abroad
  • Multinational companies reduce profit and taxes as money is spent in foreign countries
  • Commissions paid by tour operators to foreign retailers
  • Reduction in or exemption of duties and taxes by host countries on foreign companies
Strategies for minimizing leakages are
  • Use local resources instead of imported ones
  • Restricting multinationals
  • Introducing controls like tourists being required to pay hotel bills, buy things etc in foreign currency only

Role Of Local Bodies In Tourism Development

1. Roads, Traffic Signs & Directions

Most of the inner roads maintained by local bodies at tourism destinations are not up to the mark. Blockades, unauthorized encroachments and animals on the road interrupt smooth flow of traffic and cause traffic jams and congestion. Lack of traffic signs and sign boards must be rectified. Boards must be painted as well. Street light facility should be provided in all areas.

2. Sanitation & Toilets

Poor waste disposal and toilet facilities create a bad image among tourists. Sometimes tourists themselves pollute the environment. So dustbins must be placed wherever possible. Lack of clean toilets is a major issue at most destinations.

3. Water Supply

Overcrowding and lack of water supply leads to tension between the locals and tourists. Most private resorts will have adequate water supply. It is the low budget tourists who suffer the most.

4. Recreation, Parks & Parking

Proper maintenance of parks, benches at proper spots, shelters from sun and rain, plantations and adequate parking space along with recreational facilities add to the attraction of a destination. Providing these facilities come under the purview of local bodies.

5. Pollution

It is the duty of the local bodies to keep their areas free from pollution.

6. Health Hazards & Medical Aid

Local bodies have to provide curative and preventive health services in their areas. Mosquitoes, dirty drinking water and serving eatables in unhygienic conditions can pose serious health problems. Local bodies should make sure that proper hygienic conditions are prevalent. Health centres to provide medical aid should also be opened.

7. Shopping Centres

Neat, clean and well maintained shops attract tourists. Local bodies must ensure that the shops are at right places and no encroachment to roads are made. Make sure that the shops display the right prices, so that the tourists are not cheated in any way.

8. Local Transport

Providing local transport in the cities and towns and from the cities/towns to the places of tourist interest is the responsibility of the local bodies. The quality and timing of local transport needs tremendous improvement. 

9. Security, Law & Order

Local bodies can assist the district police and state departments in making a place safe and secure. They must also check crimes related to tourism.

Features of National Action Plan 1992

Salient Features of National Action Plan 1992

1. OBJECITVES

a) Socio economic development of areas
  • Tourism will improve the quality of life of a community
  • It can develop an area economically where other scope for economic development doesn't exist
b) Increasing employment opportunities
  • Currently tourism industry provides direct and indirect employment to 13.14 million persons. The idea is to double the number by the year 2000
c) Developing domestic tourism for budget travelers
  • Domestic tourism makes up for the bulk of the world tourist traffic
  • Facilities for domestic tourists will be improved and expanded, particularly for budget travelers
 d) Preservation of national heritage and environment
  • Tourism should be developed preserving our cultural heritage including support to arts and crafts
  • Preservation and enrichment of environment is also an integral part
 e) Development of international tourism and optimization of foreign exchange earnings
  • Tourism will be developed so that foreign exchange earnings increase from Rs.2440 crores to Rs.10,000 by the year 2000.
f) Diversification of tourism product
  • While retaining cultural tourism, diversification of tourism in the field of leisure, adventure, conventions and incentive tourism will continue.
 g) Increase in India's share of world tourism
  • Currently it is 0.4% of total foreign tourist movement, increase it to 1% in the next 5 years.
 2. IMPROVEMENT OF TOURIST INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Encourage private investment both domestic and foreign
 3. ACCOMMODATION
  • Double the number of hotel rooms in the next 3 years by providing tax subsidies, loans etc
  • Acts like 50% tax exemption for foreign exchange earning of a hotel has accelerated the investment in accommodation sector.
  • Hotels in rural areas are given exemption from expenditure tax and 50% of income tax for 10 years
  • Interest subsidy on loans for construction of hotels are also provided
  • Tourism finance corporation of India now provides loan for heritage hotel projects of Rs.50 lakhs and above
4. ENCOURAGING DOMESTIC TOURISM

Central assistance will be given to state tourism development corporation to set up tented camps and paying guest accommodation. The idea is to provide affordable and hygienic accommodation to both domestic and foreign tourists. Steps will be taken to recognize apartment hotels and tour operators in domestic sector.

5. PILGRIM TOURISM

Rs.500 crores as central assistance to state departments will be provided to improve the facilities at pilgrim centres.

6. CRAFT VILLAGES

Department intends to set up craft villages in different parts of the country to provide a boost to traditional handicrafts of these regions.

7. FAIRS AND FESTIVALS

Ministry will give financial assistance to develop fairs and festivals, like the boat race in Alleppey all over the country and promote them aggressively in the international markets. Government will tie up with zonal cultural centres for organizing cultural evenings fairs and festivals all round the year. Such activities will be organized in coordination with the department of culture and archaeological survey of India.

8. ROAD TRANSPORT

Government will import coaches for Buddhist Circuit in UP and Bihar. 300 air conditioned units for travel trade will be provided. All international standards of transport will be met.

9. TRAVEL TRADE

Government will streamline and liberalize rules and procedures for recognizing travel agents and tour operators.

10. FACILITATING TOURIST MOVEMENT

Chartered flights are now allowed by government and direct general of civil aviation.

11. FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Foreign investment in equity up to 51% in hotel and tourism industry is now allowed in the new industrial policy. Special efforts are made to attract foreign investment. A committee under the chairmanship of principal secretary to the prime minister is set up to negotiate with parties abroad for investment in the country.

12. CONVENTION TOURISM
  • Fully integrated convention complexes will be set up
  • Convention city with international standards will also be set up
13. DEVELOPING AREAS ON A SELECTIVE BASIS FOR INTEGRATED GROWTH
  • 15 destinations are selected for concentrated development both through central assistance and state/private sector
  • Once they reach the expected level of development, new destinations will be added
  • A special area development authority will be set up with full delegation of authority. They will act as a single window clearance to the investors. The state and central government will provide all the basic infrastructure for the projects
 14. RESTRUCTURING AND STRENGTHENING INSTITUTIONS FOR MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT

The requirement for trained personnel in accommodation and hospitality sector is much more than the turnover. Several institutes like the Indian Institute of Travel Management will be strengthened in both staff and equipment to provide trained manpower for travel trade.

15. MARKETING AND OVERSEAS PUBLICIITY

Department with Air India will emphasis on direct promotion by going directly to the consumer. Computerized tourist information service called TOURNET is set up in selected countries.

Role Of History In Tourism

India is primarily a cultural destination in International Tourism map. History and its products remain prime attractions in both international and domestic tourism. In fact, tourism is the most important area where history seems to be active as an attraction. Offering historical destinations and museums in travel packages have increased with the growth of special interest tourism. History also figures in shopping and entertainment. People always love to know the history of designs and styles of jewellery and crafts they wish to buy.

History is offered as a product in tourism. History figures prominently in promotional literature. Many destinations like Bangalore, the Garden City has been promoted through its historicity. Rock climbing, mountaineering, skiing etc have their own history in terms of peaks, trails taken by famous mountaineers and climbers. History has been a popular theme in travel writing. The major problem of such write-ups is that most of them do not differentiate between history, mythology and legends. Distortions are put in history without any substantial evidence. This is a very common practice among guides.

Distortions in history take place due to 
  • Lack of awareness about scientific history and dependance on unauthenticated history books
  • Intentional approach to propagate one's own bias and interpretation of history
  • Unconsciously, just to add some spice to write ups and make the destination look more attractive
Several implications rise up as a result of this. Some of them are

1. Making generalizations that are not substantiated by evidence can lead to embarrassing situations. 

2. Attributing things to divine powers or mythology is in fact denying the people of that particular age the credit due to them in terms of their knowledge, wisdom or creativity. For eg: The Garbagraha of a temple in Orissa will have sun rays going right into it till late evening. Guides propagate that it is the power of God, but actually it is the skill of the architect who built the temple. 

3. Giving communal versions of history at various destinations.Yes, we had a history of destruction and plunder, but we also have a history of harmony, cooperation and understanding between different religious communities. We need to project the positive side of history.

How Is History Used Or Misused In Tourism ?

History is offered as a product in tourism. History figures prominently in promotional literature. Many destinations like Bangalore, the Garden City has been promoted through its historicity. Rock climbing, mountaineering, skiing etc have their own history in terms of peaks, trails taken by famous mountaineers and climbers. History has been a popular theme in travel writing. The major problem of such write-ups is that most of them do not differentiate between history, mythology and legends. Distortions are put in history without any substantial evidence. This is a very common practice among guides.

Distortions in history take place due to 
  • Lack of awareness about scientific history and dependance on unauthenticated history books
  • Intentional approach to propagate one's own bias and interpretation of history
  • Unconsciously, just to add some spice to write ups and make the destination look more attractive
Several implications rise up as a result of this. Some of them are

1. Making generalizations that are not substantiated by evidence can lead to embarrassing situations. 

2. Attributing things to divine powers or mythology is in fact denying the people of that particular age the credit due to them in terms of their knowledge, wisdom or creativity. For eg: The Garbagraha of a temple in Orissa will have sun rays going right into it till late evening. Guides propagate that it is the power of God, but actually it is the skill of the architect who built the temple. 

3. Giving communal versions of history at various destinations.Yes, we had a history of destruction and plunder, but we also have a history of harmony, cooperation and understanding between different religious communities. We need to project the positive side of history.

Tourism Professionals - Personality And Communication Skills

Q) Why do personnel in the tourism industry need to have a pleasing personality and good communication skills ?

In tourism industry, you will have to first present your personality even before you can present your ideas, services or products. The first impression is the best and lasting impression and it is where you need to score maximum points. First impression given by the employee is also the first impression about his organization. You should wear clothes in which you feel comfortable and which projects your personality well.

Communication Skills

Communication is the process of sharing, transferring or exchanging information, ideas, views and feelings between two or more persons. The aim should be to effectively communicate your ideas clearly, confidently, creatively, interestingly and persuasively.

Skills Needed For Tourism Writing

Q) Discuss the skills needed for writing for tourism ?

The basic requirements are lucidity, capability for description and keen sense of observation. The write ups should influence the reader to
  • Undertake a journey to a particular destination
  • Decide on the mode of travel
  • Look for sources of entertainment
  • Taste the cuisine
  • Spend money on shopping
A writer has to be very clear about the target audience. Eg: Age group. The publishing space should also be kept in mind. Eg: A newspaper article can be descriptive but a brochure has to be very crisp.

Qualities

The writer is both an information gatherer as well as a provider. The information gathered through keen observation, personal experience, collection of data and reading of articles is communicated to the reader through the application of creativity, imagination and the capacity to communicate.

Some of the qualities required by a writer are

1. He should not be prejudiced. He should have an open mind while approaching the subject. Even if there are pre-conceived ideas they have to be tested on the basis of ground realities. 

2. A writer must be observant, even of minute things. Useful information comes out of keen observation. Eg: Only close inspection of ethnic crafts will reveal whether it is original or not.

3. Preparation about the subject should be done nice and early. But it should not lead to bias.

4. Constant updation of knowledge and information must be done. At times writer has to become a researcher as well.

5. Facts have to be given special attention. Eg: Civil disturbances are an obstacle to tourism, even then foreign tourists have generally been safe in India.

6. A writer should identify his area of interest, skills and also his limitations at the same time. Sentences should be short, simple words must be used and the write ups should be lively.

7. Collected information from various sources form the basis of write-ups. It is always better to record personal experiences and assessment as it provides authenticity to the writing.

8. Meaningful photographs and illustrations add to the overall quality of the write-ups. Photography skill is an added advantage or else you can hire professional photographers to get the job done.

9. Sponsored writings for hotels and organizations should not venture into over statements, unqualified commendation or project products beyond what they actually are.

Pilikula Biological Park - Review

There are many parks in Mangalore city. Most of the parks within the city limit are not really ideal for families as they are occupied by shady couples and uncles who keep stalking away. The problem is more so, if you are just husband and wife. That is where Pilikula Biological Park comes to your rescue. It is a great place to hangout at Mangalore.

Pilikula park is about 12Km away from the heart of the city. If you travel by auto from Mangalore Central railway station, the charge will be around Rs.250. You don't need to pay waiting charge as autos for return journey will be available in front of the park itself. Moreover, you need at least 3 hours to see the park in full. 

Pilikula Biological Park - Review
 
There is a nice variety of animals and birds at the park. It is nothing compared to the Mysore Zoo, but still it is good enough for a half day hangout. The entry fee for adult is Rs.50. The park is well maintained, they have plans to accommodate more animals and construction of cages are going on. Food courts are available near the entrance and towards the end. So you can enjoy the sight by having ice-creams or cool drinks.

The only thing I didn't like about Pilikula Biological Park is that there are not many benches to sit around, except at the entrance. This makes the whole walk a pain in the ass,if you have elderly people in the group. There are lions, tigers (I just managed to see one only), leopard (I didn't see any), bear (managed to see one in the cage inside the catchment area). The park has a huge number of King Cobras (the highest number I have ever seen in any park in South India), which is a treat to watch. The park also owns a King Cobra breeding centre but visitors are not allowed there.

To see the maximum number of animals, especially tigers, lions and leopards, you need to come in the morning, at least by 11am before the sun starts beating down. When the temperature rises, these animals go back to their den or where they can get some shade, which makes them hard to spot. Otherwise you can visit the park after 3pm. The visiting hours is from 9.30am to 5.30pm and Monday is a holiday.

The best thing about Pilikula Biological Park is that your privacy is respected here. There will be no shady people to stalk you. There are two reasons for it
  1. It is away from Mangalore city
  2. There is an entry fee of Rs.50, which keeps unwanted people away
All in all, I had a great experience at the park. There is a water theme park near it, which I couldn't visit due to my tight schedule. I have visited Mangalore 6 times and till now Pilikula Biological Park is the best place I visited in the city.

Factory Reset Time Nexus 5

Normal factory reset time for Nexus 5 is around 30 minutes. Sometimes it may look as if the phone is stuck while doing a factory rest. But do not hit the power button until 30 minutes is past, because that is just about the average time required by Nexus 5 to do a factory reset. Sometimes it may just take 10-15 minutes, it varies with phones. So wait for at least 45 minutes before doing something. If it takes more than 45 minutes to factory reset, hold down the power button for several seconds and start all over again. Hope it goes through this time.

Promotional Events And Tourism

Promotion may be of country, specific destination, activities or services, tour packages, accommodation etc. Main decisions to make in promotion planning are
  • Objectives of promotion
  • Choice of mix
  • Selection of media
  • Formulating the messages
  • Timing and intensity of the campaign
1. Types of Events

Events sometimes are organized to highlight some unique aspects of a country or region. Such as the Onam festival and boat race that accompanies it in Kerala. This boat race and Onam festival along with other programmes can be termed as a promotional event. Events can also be promoted on the backdrop of historic monuments and dance and music festivals. Such as the Khajuraho dance festival.

2. Advantages of Promotional Events

In order to derive maximum advantage from tourism promotions
  • Never overlook the incidental effect of increased tourist traffic in the city
  • It is not proper to over commercialize the event
  • The cost of promotion must be recovered through sale of tickets, souvenirs etc.
  • All organizations (hotels and transport) connected to tourism business must be participated
Souvenirs generate income. They also remind the tourist about the event and they themselves or their relatives or friends may come for the event in the future.

Use Of Market Research For Tourism

Market research is the process of systematically gathering, analyzing and evaluating data relating to the market. It helps to analyze the problems that may be experienced and also finding their solutions. Some of the market researches are quantitative studies while other are qualitative. Sporadic studies are made at regular intervals, so that the trends and changes can be known.Research findings often form the basis of corporate decisions of long term implications. In service business 90% of personnel are in touch with customers. A lot of data can be collected from customer's experience, expectations and satisfaction directly from them.
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