Division of Knowledge Into Disciplines

Q) Division of Knowledge Into Disciplines ?

The disciplines such as natural science, social sciences and humanities are as a result of division of knowledge that took place during the emergence of university system in Europe. The division was based on classification of reality on certain philosophical ground.

Each discipline had a 'subject-matter' for its study. However the scope of a discipline could not be separated on the basis of 'subject-matter. The study of an individual involves economics, political science, sociology etc. Different disciplines are studying the different aspects of the same subject matter. That is where the scope of inter-disciplinary researches lie.

Many disciplines like statistics, physics, chemistry etc emerged in response to demands to solve specific needs of society. Chance discoveries and creativity also played a role in differentiation of knowledge. All these classifications led to the rise of professional groups of vested interests who posed a major threat to the integration of knowledge.

Note : These are the main points to be covered for this question. However you may elaborate these points while writing a long essay.

Foundation Course In Humanities And Social Sciences - BSHF101 - Notes List

Have Religion And Science Separated In Modern Times ? Comment

Features Of Industrial And Post Industrial Society

Scientific Advances During Renaissance

Protestant Revolution

Achievements In The Field Of Art And Architecture During Renaissance

Division of Knowledge Into Disciplines 

Factors That Led To The Capitalist Economic Development In Europe

Social Stratification - Short Note 

What do you understand by the term ‘digital divide’? Discuss?

Critically examine the role of the institution of family?

What do you understand by the term renaissance? Discuss? 

Explain the terms 'Industrial' and 'Post - industrial' societies. 

Role of Gandhi During National Movement

Human Security

Commercialization Of Indian Agriculture Under Colonial Rule

Drain Of Wealth Theory  

Deindustrialization In Colonial Context

Role Of Gandhi In National Movement  

Role Of Swadeshi In Indian National Movement

Legacy Of Nationalist Movement In India  

Regional Imbalances

Social Structure  

Theories Of Social Stratification

Family Types And Functions  

Marriage : Rules And Types

Define Religion : Positive And Negative Aspects For Society  

Plight Of Orphaned, Delinquent and Destitute Children

Do Women Constitute A Marginalised Group ? Give Reasons  

Scheduled Tribes And Provisions Made For Them In Indian Constitution

Denotified Tribes  

Factors Of Social Change

Basic Features Of Indian Constitution  

Concerns Debated In The Context Of Review Of The Indian Constitution

Concept And Meaning Of Democracy  

Election Commission Of India Shortnote

Essentials Of Decision Making In Administrative Organizations  

Role Of Communication In An Organization

Governance And Its Characteristics  

Various Stages Of Demographic Transition

Notion Of A Mixed Economy  

Objectives Of Indian Planning

Rationale For Economic Reforms of 1990s In India  

Different Types Of Literature

Comment On The Growth Of Modern Painting In India  

Discuss The 3 Components or Constituents of Music

Significance Of Human Rights  

Human Security

Food Security  

Health Security

Education And Values  

ICT In Uplifting Marginalized Section Of Our Society

Define Digital Divide  

Meaning Of Environment

Environmental Reform Initiatives In India

Post-Rio Progress In Meeting Environmental Challenges

Have Religion And Science Separated In Modern Times ? Comment

Q) Have Religion And Science Separated In Modern Times ? Comment?

Ans. Due to the emergence of imperial political organization, a large scale growth in commerce, technology and industrial production took place. Evidences for these events are there in the history of ancient civilizations in India, China, Egypt, Greece and Rome.

Slowly, a differentiation between scientists and priestly classes emerged. The decline of Greeco-Roman civilization led to the rise of Christianity. Slowly, churches emerged as a powerful social and political institution. This was a setback to the differentiation of scientists and priests. Hence all the knowledge and scientific advancements required the approval of the church. This pattern continued until renaissance and religious reformation of 15th and 16th centuries.

During the 15th and 16h centuries, scientists like Galileo and Newton offered scientific explanations instead of cosmic theology. Religious reformations by Luther and Calvin emphasized the role of individual over that of church for religious salvation. One by one, the administration and cultivation of knowledge were taken over by the city councils of citizens. This became the first, primitive form of modern universities.

Note : These are the main points to be covered for this question. However you may elaborate these points while writing a long essay.

Write A Summary Of The Passage - FEG2 Dec 2014 Assignment - Answer

Write a summary of the above passage and suggest a suitable title?


The number of medical tourists to India is forecast to rise at a rate of 19%. The city of Pune has benefited a lot from this trend. One of the beneficiaries of medical tourism is the Sancheti Institute, most people visit the institute for spine and limb related treatment. 30% lesser treatment costs, well trained doctors, international standard treatment facilities, no waiting period and tourist packages for relatives are the factors that attract foreigners to these institutes.

Pune has a fair advantage as a medical tourism destination. It is linked by air, railways and road. The pleasant weather, shopping facilities and local tourism make city more attractive. The proximity to Mumbai is another advantage. Most hospitals now provide native food and translator facilities for their foreign customers. Most patients come from countries like UK, Kenya, Nigeria and Iraq for surgeries and treatment. Slowly but steadily Pune is emerging as a medical tourism hotspot.

Foundation Course In English II - FEG2 Notes List

Combine The Following Sentences -Answers - FEG1 Assignment Dec 2014

Q) Combine the following pairs of sentences into a complex sentence by changing the sentences in bold into adjective, adverb and noun clauses ?

1. Ramesh stood first in the examination. He is my neighbor. 
Ans. Ramesh who stood first in the examination is my neighbor.

2. We visited Porbandar. Gandhiji was born there. 
Ans. We visited Porbandar where Gandhiji was born.

3. The man is a painter. You met him yesterday. 
Ans. The man whom you met yesterday is a painter.

4. The match could not be played. It rained heavily.
Ans. The match could not be played as it rained heavily.

5. The bell rang. The children rushed out of the classes.
Ans. The children rushed out of the classes as soon as the bell rang.

6. We were caught in the rain. We were going to school.  
Ans. We were caught in the rain while going to school.

7.  You are not careful. You will cut your finger. 
Ans. You will cut your finger, if you are not careful.

8. He knew this. He had made a mistake.
Ans. He knew he had made a mistake.

9. He would be absent. He said this. 
Ans. He said he would be absent.

10. He is honest. This is known to everybody. 
Ans. Everybody knows that he is honest.

Do As Directed - Answers - FEG1 Assignment Dec 2014

1. Choose the correct word to complete the sentence ?
Ans. After I had mailed the letter, I realized it was unstamped.
Ans. I may come to Delhi in February, but I am not very certain about it.

2. Fill in the blanks with appropriate articles and prepositions to complete the following text:
Ans. The lion safari of Nandan Kanan is the largest one in the country and covers an area of nearly 20 hectares.

3. Rewrite the following in Indirect Speech:
Ans. Teacher asked the boys to keep quiet and not to make noise.
I told the teacher to explain that answer to me.

Read the following and write the letter - Answers - FEG1 Assignment Dec 2014

Dear Anna,

Last week a typhoon struck Hong Kong.  When we first heard that it was coming towards us, the (i) weather was very hot and (ii) dry. The sky was (iii) clear and it was very (iv) sunny . I didn’t believe the weather (v) forecast on the radio.  I thought they had made a mistake.  Later that day however, clouds appeared and it quickly (vi) became cooler. Then the (vii) wind became stronger throughout the night and several trees were (viii) knocked down.  That night was the worst night of my life.

When morning came, it was suddenly very (ix) calm . We were at the centre of the typhoon!  An hour or two later the wind started again, but it was not quite as (x) strong as before. Nevertheless, there was a lot of damage and a number of people were killed.

I shall write again to you when we have fully recovered from this terrible typhoon.


IGNOU December 2014 TEE Exam Time Table

IGNOU has announced the dates for December 2014 TEE. The examination will start on first day of the month itself and is scheduled to end by 29th of the month.

DECEMBER 2014 TEE EXAM TIME TABLE - For IGNOU Bachelor Degree Programmes

Conditional Clause

Conditional Clause : Clauses that make the sentence conditional, usually introduced by subordinating conjunctions like 'if, whether, unless' is called conditional clause.

Interrogative Sentence

Sentences that include questions are called interrogative sentences. So whenever a question comes like, 'change into interrogative sentence', make it like a question.

Eg: What is your name ?

Who are you ?


a, an, the are called articles. So whenever a question comes with 'use appropriate article', use any of the four articles in the sentence.


A preposition is a word used to show the position of one thing in relation to another. It can be called 'PRE'POSITION.

Most common prepositions are about, across, against, after, before, behind, among, between, beside, through, at, in, up, down, into, out, of, over, above, by, from, for, since.

Past Perfect Tense For Passive & Active Voice

Past Perfect Tense Format For Active Voice : Subject + Helping Verb + 3rd form of verb + Object (Active Voice)

Eg: She had never seen it before

Past Perfect Tense Format For Passive Voice : Subject + Helping Verb (had been) + 3rd form of verb + by + Object (Passive Voice)

Eg: It had never been seen by her before.

The houses had been abandoned by the villagers much before the tsunami struck at 11pm.

Passive Voice

Passive voice is used when we are more interested in the action than the 'doer' of the action. Action is given all the importance.

You are running a race. (Active Voice)
A race is being run by you. (Passive Voice)

He is eating apples.(Active Voice)
Apples are being eaten by him. (Passive Voice)

Mary makes delicious desert. (Active Voice)
Delicious desert is being made by Mary. (Passive Voice)

The construction company will complete the bridge in 2014. (Active Voice)
The bridge will be completed by the construction company in 2014. (Passive Voice)

My sister writes good poems. (Active Voice)
Good poems are being written by my sister. (Passive Voice)

KM Player Not Playing In Window Size - Solved

KM Player settings is always confusing. Sometimes you even mess up the settings unknowingly. I recently did something and the videos didn't play in the window size, instead it shrinks to a smaller size every time I play videos.

To make the KM Player play the videos in window size

Go to Screen Controls > Keep Video Frame To > Window Size (Default)

From now on, all the videos will be played in Window Size, happy viewing.

Foundation Course In English I - FEG1 Notes List

Direct Speech & Indirect Speech

Direct Speech : When we repeat the actual words of a speaker without making any changes.

Indirect Speech/ Reported Speech : When we tell a person what somebody said without repeating the actual words.

Tense Changes In Reported Speech

Present Simple > Past Simple
Present Continuous > Past Continous
Present Perfect > Past Perfect
Past Simple > Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous > Past Perfect Continous
Future > Probable Continous
Future Continuous > Present Conditional Continuous

  • Past tense used after it is time, rather, wish, would won't change.  

He said , " What a beautiful child !"
He said that it was a beautiful child

Indirect Speech Changes

Today > That day
Yesterday > The day before
The day before yesterday > Two days before
Tomorrow > The next or following day
The day after tomorrow > In two days time/two days later
Next week/month/year > The following week/month
Ago > Before
This > That
This/that (as adjectives) > The
Here > There

Customs - Short Note

Q) Short note on customs ?

Hands on experience of the local customs will be a great experience for tourists. For eg: In several hotels in Rajasthan, you can have dinner wearing turbans and lehngas. In Goa river cruises, tourists are asked to participate in dancing. This makes it a memorable event for the tourists even after the holidays are over. 

Theme dinners are sometimes the highlight of a holiday. A banquet area transformed into a village or palace and serving the food associated with it can be very exciting to tourists. A tired tourist, after all the sight seeing and shifts can be cheered up by creating events and activities that provide excitement and pleasure. Local games and customs can be included in the schedule to enrich their experience of being in a new environment.

Cuisine As A Tourism Product - Short Note

Q) Short note on cuisine as a tourism product ?

Tourists are always cautious of what they eat during holidays. Their eating expectations can be classified as
  • The will look for cuisines that they are familiar with. For eg: A North Indian will always look for a restaurant that has Nan and butter chicken in the menu even if they are traveling through South India, where vegetarian meals are most common.
  • Tourists may try some local delicacies. So it is very important that the menu contains the ingredients of the dish as well.
  • Sometimes they will also try dishes based on the recommendations of the guide or books.
  • Some people require special meals such as vegetarian only.
  • If tourists don't get food of their expectations, some will try omelets, sandwich, toast, butter, jam and fruits which are commonly available in India.
  • They may try different cuisines on different days. One day they may try Chinese and Mughlai another day.
A recent survey reveals that package international tourists spend 13.96% of their total expenditure on food and drinks. The percentage is even higher, 18.53% for non-package tourists. A facility to eat as the locals do is very exciting to the tourists. For eg: Hotels in Kerala serve meals on banana leaves.They will have a good experience eating meals with their fingers. Presenting genuine local specialties in the way they are normally served adds to the pleasure.

Even if that is the case, the tourists should be well informed about what to expect at such specialty restaurants. Organizing food festivals which brings alive the cuisine of a region is a good prospect to attract tourists.

Festivals And Fairs - Short Note

Q) Short note on festivals and fairs?

Q) Explain with suitable examples how fairs and festivals can be developed into tourism products?

Festivals are the high points in a calendar year. Some festivals are celebrated inside homes and some others like Dussehra and Diwali are celebrated along with the tourists. Burning of Ravana in North India, Pooja of Bengal and fireworks of Diwali are some festivals that tourists enjoy.

Certain celebrations like Dussehra celebrations at Mysore or Kulu in Himachal Pradesh have already become the part of tourist's itinerary. There is unlimited potential for attracting visitors for the festivals in India with good publicity and promotion. Brochures and books on festivals play an important role in this. Advertisements, newspaper articles and magazines will also help a lot. As a tourism professional you can try and get travel writers to visit your area and encourage them to write a compelling article about the place.

Fairs are more part of the traditional life, little tourist interest was there in the past but now things have changed. More and more tourists insist participating in local fairs as an important part of their journey. The balance between touristic interest and the sacred nature of the fairs should be kept in tact. Tourists in return should respect the local customs. Efforts should be made to retain fair's own unique character.

Basic facilities for tourists like accommodation, food, water, security and transportation should be provided. You should not pour tourism into fairs such that it loses its regional and local flavor.

Importance Of Dance And Music For Tourism Promotion In India

Q) Discuss the importance of dance and music for tourism promotion in India?

Q) Taking Khajuraho Dance Festival as a case study, explain how music and dance would be marketed as tourism products?

Culture is an important element in tourism programmes. Dance and music is an essential component of cultural tourism in India. In a survey conducted by UNESCO, it was found that dance and music figure 5th in the list of those important aspects of culture that attracts tourists. Dance and music form a great secondary attraction for tourists.

There are two ways in which dance and music can be marketed as tourism products. One is to involve local people to portray their culture at their locality. Sometimes tourists also participate in such events. Eg: Maori Poi dances in New Zealand, Hula dance in Honolulu and Alarde festival in Spain. The second method is to stage dance and music programmes at tourist destinations. The staging is generally done at places which don't have any extant cultural experiences. Such staging is called 'Contrived Tourist Product'. Eg: Mock wedding ceremonies in Tunisia.

Both the above said marketing strategies have been criticized for treating culture as a tourist commodity. In the first method, cultural and traditional values are lost as they are only performed as entertainment rituals. In the second method, sometimes traditions and customs are manipulated to satisfy tourists.

Khajuraho Dance Festival

Most state tourism departments nowadays organise and market dance festivals. Khajuraho dance festival is one such contrived tourism product marketed by Madhya Pradesh government. It attracts a lot of domestic and international tourists. It is held annually in the month of March. It was first organised in 1975. 

Khajuraho dance festival is organised to overcome the twin limitations of Khajuraho, to improve Khajuraho's tourist stay duration and to promote it as a tourist destination. The festival is held at the tail end of the tourism season to extend the season.

In Khajuraho, artistically excellent temples are used as a backdrop for the music festival. The artists who perform are eminent and well known performers in India. Entry fee is there since 1979 and little local participation is there. Locals say that it is just a festival for high officials to exchange goodies and have fun. The entry ticket fee is also very high, which drives the locals away.

The isolation and remoteness of Khajuraho has been a setback for the festival. The publicity is also weak. The lack of local participation on the other hand saves the local culture from the negative impacts of tourism.

Best UPS For Modem & Router

Nowadays, most ups comes with minimum load shut down feature, which means the ups will automatically switch off when there is no minimum current drawn from it. This minimum load can be different on different ups models. Anyway, your modem or router won't work on it as the ups will shutdown itself after a couple of minutes on battery. So you need to get a ups that has the option to switch off this auto-shutdown feature.

I did a lot of research to find one. The only quality ups I found was the APC BX600CI-IN. It is a 600VA ups. It has a switch to turn off the battery save mode, so your modem and router will work perfectly on it. I have been using it for a month now and it is giving a back up of at least 1 hour for my modem and router. I didn't get a chance to test it beyond 1 hour as the electricity in my area didn't fail for more than 1 hr ever since I bought it. I use a Bsnl modem and a Netgear Wi-Fi router on it all the time and sometimes I connect my Canon printer as well.

The price of this ups is around Rs.2500. It is very affordable and your modem and router won't lose the connection once you install it. It has to be the best ups for modem and router.

UPDATE : I did test the UPS to full battery capacity. It gave a back up of 60 minutes with my BSNL modem on before getting switched off.

Wildlife Tourism - Definition & Impacts

Define wildlife tourism ? Discuss the problems and impacts of wildlife tourism with suitable examples?

Wildlife Tourism Definition

Wildlife tourism can be an eco and animal friendly tourism, usually showing animals in their natural habitat. Wildlife tourism in its simplest sense is watching wild animals in their natural habitat.

Problems In Wildlife Tourism

Impacts of Wildlife Tourism

Wildlife tourism is an important source of income for the government. It is one type of tourism resource which tourism utilizes without consuming. 

Some of the suggestions for improving economic benefits from Wildlife tourism are
  • Increase entry points for a good dispersion of tourists
  • Putting up hides and watch towers at waterholes and other important places of activity
  • Encourage walking, boating and elephant rides
  • Excursion to nearby archaeological sites such as forts, geological sites, landscapes or culturally important places
  • Excursion to lakes for seeing water birds or to the field for deer and antelopes 

Problems In Wildlife Tourism

There are many problems related to wildlife tourism. Some of them are

1. Timing

In India, there is a time frame for wildlife tours. Wildlife expedition starts at 7am and ends at 5pm, as if it is some sort of an entertainment show. This is not appropriate to cater to tourists with different tastes. Some tourists want to see some animals and return, some others would like to spend some time in the forest taking photographs, visiting waterholes and see the whole day's activity at the forest floor by staying in some sort of hide outs. The current timings does not allow these kind of activities.

2. Transportation

Lack of comfortable transportation is another problem in wildlife tourism in India. Tourists would like to have a comfortable transport system to see animals, birds and the activity of the jungle. Introduction of unthoughtful vehicles by state forest departments doesn't help the course. For eg: Ranthambore reserve introduced canter trucks and Mudhumalai reserve brought bus like vehicles where people are cramped for room and do not have enough view points to see animals and photograph them. Madhya Pradesh forest department has done a very good job in this regard. They are providing jeep safaris for the tourists.

An alternative method of transportation is elephant safari. Most tourists dream of traveling on elephant backs. However, national parks in India are now discouraging elephant rides. Whereas Nepal government assures a guaranteed elephant ride for the tourists. This drives potential tourists out of India to Nepal like destinations.

3. Accommodation

Accommodation is another challenge for wildlife tourism in India. Good facilities ensuring minimum standards of comfort and cleanliness are rare. Tourists will always look for
  • Ideal environment to the purpose for which they have come
  • Neat and clean accommodation
  • Efficient management
  • Friendly staff
We should be able to provide accommodation that meets the expectations of the tourists. There are restrictions for staying inside national parks. In such cases, sufficient arrangements should be done at nearby places.

4. Photography

Most tourists like to document their visit through photographs. These photographs will inspire others to visit the destination in future. Photographs also immensely helps in branding of a destination. Sufficient arrangements for helping photographers should be made at wildlife destinations. Guides should help them in spotting the animals and get the right angles. Arrangements for charging camera batteries should be made available inside the vehicle itself.

Mountain Guide - Short Note

Mountain guides are also known as Sherpas. A mountain guide is a guide, pathfinder and a porter rolled into one. The guide in the Himalayan region is often a local person who is familiar with the terrain and touts and is thus able to lead the group along known routes. He also acts as a liaison man who helps in organizing porters, provisioning of rations, finding suitable accommodation etc. Thus he is a guide and an escort both.

Pathfinder in Himalayan region denotes a person well versed in climbing skills who is required to open a route in such a way that climbers or trekkers under his care can safely negotiate the route with his help and guidance. 

The main difference between the guide and pathfinder is of the skills they have. Traditionally a pathfinder is more of an adventurer who has taken up the role of a pathfinder for the sheer joy of it and accepts financial remuneration to sustain his sense of adventure. On the other hand, a guide takes on his role mainly as a means of earning a livelihood and utilizes his familiarity with the terrain along with his natural skills in attaining his goal.

Mountain guides take on more specialized roles. By taking on more specialized roles, Sherpas ensured that the visitors do not have to bring trained personnel from far off places at great financial expenses. Instead, the tourists can rely on the locals thereby saving a lot of money spend as remuneration for trained personnel. This is more convenient to both tourists and the locals. Sherpa is actually a member of a distinctive Himalayan tribe. Today, Sherpa denotes a job category which includes assisting a trekking group
  • with setting up of tents
  • by carrying loads
  • by managing supplies
  • performing other jobs like cooking
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