Role of Gandhi During National Movement

Gandhi’s political engagement in India started in the 1917-1918 period when he took up the issues of Champaran indigo farmers, the Ahmedabad textile workers and the Kheda peasants. These struggles witnessed his specific method of agitation, known as Satyagraha.

Gandhi initially favoured offering "non-violent moral support" to the British effort when World War II broke out in 1939, but the Congress leaders were offended by the unilateral inclusion of India in the war without consultation of the people's representatives. All Congressmen resigned from office. After long deliberations, Gandhi declared that India could not be party to a war ostensibly being fought for democratic freedom while that freedom was denied to India itself. As the war progressed, Gandhi intensified his demand for independence, calling for the British to Quit India in a speech at Gowalia Tank Maidan. This was Gandhi's and the Congress Party's most definitive revolt aimed at securing the British exit from India.

Quit India became the most forceful movement in the history of the struggle, with mass arrests and violence on an unprecedented scale. Gandhi and his supporters made it clear they would not support the war effort unless India were granted immediate independence. He even clarified that this time the movement would not be stopped if individual acts of violence were committed, saying that the "ordered anarchy" around him was "worse than real anarchy." He called on all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline via ahimsa, and Karo Ya Maro ("Do or Die") in the cause of ultimate freedom.

Human Security

The phrase human security was first put forward  by the 1994 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Frequently referred to in a wide variety of global policy discussions and scholarly journals, critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness;that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes; and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies.

Human security emphasizes the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens. Achievement of human security requires a global political structure that is founded on shared values of human dignity and human rights. Human security means freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety or even their lives. Human security holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability. The concept emerged from a post-Cold War, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights.

UNDP emphasized that human security has a geographical and even international dimension. Democracy and good governance are very important in promoting human security. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects minorities is a central strategy for promoting human security.  Human security focuses on the protection of individuals, rather than defending the physical and political integrity of states from external military threats - the traditional goal of national security. Ideally, national security and human security should be mutually reinforcing, but in the last 100 years far more people have died as a direct or indirect consequence of the actions of their own governments or rebel forces in civil wars than have been killed by invading foreign armies. Acting in the name of national security, governments can pose profound threats to human security. The application of human security is highly relevant within the area of humanitarian intervention, as it focuses on addressing the deep rooted and multi-factorial problems inherent in humanitarian crises, and offers more long term resolutions. In general, the term humanitarian intervention generally applies to when a state uses force against another state in order to alleviate suffering in the latter state (See, humanitarian intervention).

Under the traditional security paradigm humanitarian intervention is contentious. As discussed above, the traditional security paradigm places emphasis on the notion of states. Hence, the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention that are paramount in the traditional security paradigm make it difficult to justify the intervention of other states in internal disputes. Through the development of clear principles based on the human security concept, there has been a step forward in the development of clear rules of when humanitarian intervention can occur and the obligations of states that intervene in the internal disputes of a state.

These principles on humanitarian intervention are the product of a debate pushed by United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan. He posed a challenge to the international community to find a new approach to humanitarian intervention that responded to its inherent problems.In 2001, the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) produced the "The Responsibility to protect", a comprehensive report detailing how the “right of humanitarian intervention” could be exercised. It was considered a triumph for the human security approach as it emphasized and gathered much needed attention to some of its main principles.

Explain the terms ‘Industrial’ and ‘Post-industrial’ societies?

Industrial Society

Industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Industrial society developed in the West during the Industrial Revolution and it replaced  the agrarian societies of the pre-industrial age. Industrial societies are often considered to be much different from traditional societies. Industrial societies are mass societies which may be succeeded by an information society. Industrial society is characterized by the use of external energy sources, such as fossil fuels, to increase the rate and scale of production. Food production is shifted to large commercial farms where industrial products like combine harvesters, fossil fuel and fertilizers are used to decrease human labour while increasing the production at the same time. As a result of this, human labour is no longer needed for food production and they are shifted to factories where mechanization is utilized to further increase efficiency. As years pass, mechanizations become refined and more efficient, often to the level of automation, as a result many workers shift to expanding service industries.

Urbanization became a byproduct of an industrial society, so that workers can stay close with the factories and ensure full time employment and money to feed their families. This leads to the rise of very large cities and surrounding suburban areas with a high rate of economic activity. These cities needed external energy sources to overcome the diminishing returns of agricultural consolidation, due partially to the lack of nearby arable land, associated transportation and storage costs, and are otherwise unsustainable. This makes the availability of the required energy resources a high priority in industrial government policies.

The triggering technology for the change from an agricultural to an industrial organization was steam power, allowing mass production and reducing the agricultural work. Thus many industrial cities are built around rivers and it is identified as catalyst or trigger for the transition to post-industrial society.

Post-industrial Society

Daniel Bell an eminent sociologist says that post-industrial society moves at a very different quantum level where energy is transformed into information and knowledge. If a nation becomes "post-industrial" it passes through, or dodges, a phase of society predominated by a manufacturing-based economy and moves on to a structure of society based on the provision of information, innovation, finance, and services. In a post-industrial society economy undergoes transition from the production of goods to the provision of services. Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital.

Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy. Through processes of globalization and automation, the value and importance to the economy of blue-collar, unionized work, including manual labor (e.g., assembly-line work) decline, and those of professional workers (e.g. scientists, creative-industry professionals, and IT professionals) grow in value and prevalence. Behavioral and information sciences and technologies are developed and implemented. (e.g. behavioral economics, information architecture, cybernetics, Game theory and Information theory.

In the post-industrial society, the nature of technology will change. The technology will change from mechanical to intellectual. This intellectual technology is embodied in the elements of coded programming, software and various other devices, which become the way in which we organize our materials. This intellectual technology then requires a very different kind of education than it was during the age of mechanical technology.

Concept of Highway Tourism

Haryana pioneered into the field of tourism with the launching of its concept of highway tourism. Making the best of the presence of national highways that crossed through it, Haryana Tourism decided to cater to the highway traveller. They set up tourist complexes on the national highways.  It opened recreation centres at district headquarter towns to cater to the local residents. With a well established infrastructure, it soon began to develop destination stations around Delhi-the National Capital and began to identify places of tourist interest in the State where tourism facilities could be developed.

Beginning with one resort in 1966 today Haryana Tourism runs 44 tourist complexes spreaded  all over the state .These resorts are full with the facilities such as hotel ,motels, restaurants ,bars,fast, food centers ,health clubs ,conference hall and recreational facilities .777 rooms are available in the resorts run by Haryana Tourism. Barring Kurukshetra site Haryana has no conventional tourist attraction, not even a hill station. Yet today the Haryana Tourism Development Corporation is a profit-making undertaking.

Short Note On Ethnic Tourism

In Ethnic tourism, the tourists are interested in the customs of the indigenous and exotic peoples. It involves intimate contacts with the ‘authentic’ indigenous culture. The tourist is interested to have a direct contact with the local people. They want a firsthand experience with the way of life and cultural artifacts of the local indigenous people. In Ethnic tourism, the tourist visits the homes of local people, observes and participates in their festivals, dances, rituals and other forms of cultural activities. Human contacts with the indigenous people become very important in this form of tourism and it involves a study and purchase of local products as well.

Ethnic tourism can help protect indigenous people and their environments by providing a sustainable alternative to subsistence agriculture and extractive activities such as timber harvesting. The added income and exposure can satisfy national goals of development while contributing to cultural pride and autonomy. Ethnic tourism can also have many negative consequences including commoditization of culture, social tension, and loss of cultural identity.
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